Terminology in Psychology CBSE (UGC)-NET Part 5
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Sensorimotor stage: Stage of intellectual development during which sensory input and motor responses become coordinated.
Sensory adaptation: A decrease in sensory response to an unchanging stimulus.
Sensory memory: The first, normally unconscious, stage of memory, which holds an exact record of incoming information for a few seconds or less.
Shape constancy: The perceived shape of an object is unaffected by changes in its retinal image.
Shaping : Gradually molding responses to a final desired pattern.
Short‑Term Memory: Component of memory where limited amounts of information can be stored for a few seconds
Size Constancy: The ability to perceive the true size of an object despite variations in the size of its retinal image
Social comparison: Making judgments about ourselves through comparison with others.
Social Development: The ways in which individuals’ social interactions and expectations change across the life span.
Social influence: Changes in a person’s behavior induced by the presence or actions of others.
Social learning theory: Combines learning principle with cognitive processes, socialization, and modeling, to explain behavior.
Social norms: Rules that define acceptable and expected behavior for members of a group.
Social psychology: The scientific study of how individuals behave, think, and feel in social situations.
Social Role: A socially defined pattern of behavior that is expected of a person who is functioning in a given setting or group
Social‑Learning Therapy : A form of treatment in which clients observe models’ desirable behaviors being reinforced
Somatic nervous system (SNS): The system of nerves carrying information to and from the internal organs.
Somatoform disorder: Physical symptoms that mimic disease or injury for which there is no identifiable physical cause.
Spaced practice: Practice spread over many relatively short study sessions.
Spontaneous recovery: The reappearance of a learned response after its apparent extinction.
Stimulus control: Linking a particular response with specific stimuli.
Stimulus discrimination: The learned ability to respond differently to similar stimuli.
Stimulus generalization: The tendency to respond to stimuli similar to, but not identical to, a conditioned stimulus.
Storage : Holding information in memory for later use.
Stress: The mental and physical condition that occurs when a person must adjust or adapt to the environment.
Structuralism: The school of thought concerned with analyzing sensations and personal experience into basic elements.
Subjective well-being: A positive state of good health; more than the absence of disease.
Sympathetic branch: The branch of the ANS that arouses the body.
Systematic desensitization: A reduction in fear, anxiety, or aversion brought about by planned exposure to aversive stimuli.
Temperament: The physical core of personality, Including emotional and perceptual sensitivity, energy levels, typical mood, and so forth.
Temporal Lobe: Region of brain found below the lateral fissure; contains auditory cortex.
Thalamus: The brain structure that relays sensory impulses to the cerebral cortex
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT): A projective test consisting of 20 different scenes and life situations about which respondents make up stories.
Theory: A set of principles that explain and relate certain phenomena
Top-down processing: Applying higher-level knowledge to rapidly organize sensory information into a meaningful perception.
Transference: The tendency of patients to transfer feeling to a therapist that correspond to those the patient had for important persons in his or her past.
Type A personality: A personality type with an elevated risk of heart disease; characterized by time urgency, anger, and hostility.
Type B personality: All personality types other than Type A; a low – cardiac-risk personality.
Unconditional positive regard: An unqualified, unshakable acceptance of another person.
Unconditioned response (UR): An innate reflex response elicited by an unconditioned stimulus.
Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS): In classical conditioning, the stimulus that elicits an unconditioned response
Unconscious: The domain of the psyche that stores repressed urges and primitive impulses
Understanding: In psychology, understanding is achieved when the causes of a behavior can be stated.
Validity: The ability of a test to measure what it purports to measure.
Variable: Something that can have more than one value
Variable‑Interval Schedule: Dispensing reinforcement for behavior emitted following an unpredictable amount of time
Variable‑Ratio Schedule : A schedule of reinforcement in which a reinforcer is delivered for the first response made after a variable number of responses whose average is predetermined
Working memory: Another name for short-term memory, especially as it is used for thinking and problem solving.
Yerkes-Dodson law: A summary of the relationships among arousal, task complexity, and performance.
Zone Of Proximal Development: Level of development immediately above a person’s present level