Cell wall is permeable. Inter space allows free passage of ions in & out:
Lysosomes maintain pH = 5, hydrogen ions pumped in by special protein transport mechanism.
Tenoplast = fully permeable.
Lethal genes are transmitted as recessive & individuals carrying dominant lethal genes do not survive.
Larger the recombination frequency, less accurate is the measure of map distance as a cross over in one is likely to affect another.
Triplods are propagated vegetatively as they are sterile.
Deletions of pollen are not of much consequence in polyploidy as then are several sets of characteristics in pollen of polyploid plants.
B chromosomes are absent in well adopted agronomic stains due to selection.
Loops of lamp brush chromosomes are rich in RNA & protein as they synthesis the above:
Polytene chromosomes have dark band alternate to light bands due to aligned chromomeres.
In cell cycle, nuclear envelope break down in M phase as protein kinase phosphorylates the proteins.
Each chromosome must carry many factors. Number of characters of an origination vastly outnumbers the chromosomes.
For studying mutations, haploid are suitable than diploids as they have half of the genome.
DNA gyrase is essential for DNA replication in prokaryotes. It remove positive supercoils, which accumulate in front of replication fork.
A plasmid vector must be cleaved by the same enzyme, which cleaves the donor gene. A piece of DNA, cut by a restriction enzyme forms bonds with other DNA molecule which have been cut by the same restriction enzyme.
Euglena shows mixotrophic life style. Euglena is autotrophic in sunlight & heterotrophic in absent of light.
In life of most land plants, the sporophyte generation dominates as presence of vascular tissue is feature of sporophytic generation.
When starter cultures of streptococcus lactic are added to milk, lactic acid production stop within 30 minute. Bacteriophages destroy bacteria.
Distribution of receptor protein on host cell is crucial for tissue & host specificity of bacteriophage cap of virus to infect a cell depends on the ability to bind to cell wall.
Endospore is a resting stage in life cycle of bacteria. It is formed in only those, which are adequately supplied with food & energy.
Most fungi survive only under high condition of humidity. Water is essential for molecule resulting from extracellular digestion of food particle across fungal cell wall.
It is advisable to incorporate forest soil along with a forest tree when it is transplanted to a treeless area. Addiction of forest soil to tree less soil ensures mycorrhizal development with tree.
Walls of diatoms are indestructible made of cellulose + silica.