Ration of diffusion
In O. P. = Concentration of solute , if solute ionize in solution, if solute hydrated , if temperature increment
Cells of inner cortex of root Possess more O.P. than outer cells.
Plasma member act as differentially permeable member tonoplast & Cytoplasm.
Bacteria do not sunrise in salted pickles kerosene oil & swells.
Dry seeds, Velamen roots, cell walls Absorb water by imbibition
At low temp – water freeze to ice having high O.P. cause exosmosis of water = Desiccation
Marine Fresh burst endosmosis.
Fresh Marine dies exosmosis
Active process – respiration for guttation & bleeding plants
Bursting of cell in pure water (Solvent) is called plasmolysis
Osmotic – no energy involved
Non osmotic – involves energy
Guard cells have both PS I & II but Cannot assimilate CO2 because of the absence of (1) Ribulose Biphosphate Carboxylase
(2) NADP linked triose phosphate dehydrogenase
Transpiration in old stem & Fruits – Lenticels.
Fresh /dry W+ of plants – maximum in morning & minimum in noon.
Plants at high altitude show xeromorphic (adaptation to minimize transpiration)
Of leaf = transpiration flax.
Chloroplast of guard cell peripheral reticulum like that C4plants.
Chloroplast of guard cellgrana developed & have large starch accumulation when closed in most plants.
If half stomata of plant closed then transpiration is not reduced by half.
Plant from sea level Mountain (Transpiration rate increment & it may die).
Blue light keep stomata open during & day & promote movement of K+ into cells.
Co2 anti-transpirant -> ABA, PMA,
Higher temp Cause higher respiration leading to higher loads of CO2 which cause stomata closure
Stomata (Leftfield) -> According to daily movements
Alfalfa – open whole day, closed at night – pea radish mustard turnip apple grapes
Potato – open whole day, & night except few evening hours – onion potato banana.
Barley – open only few hour in day – maize, wheat & other Cereals.
Equisetum – always-open – Blue max open stomata.
Red & Blue = active spectra of transpiration.
Photometer = measure rate of transpiration
Porometer = assess total pore area(stoma)
Curtis – Transpiration is necessary evil.
If ground cell loss water – flaccid – inner wall Sags & pore closes
High temp (above 35 degree C) cause high loads of CO2 – Cause stomata closure
Scotoactive stomata – succulent (open in night) – Bryophyllum, opuntia, cactus
DDT = insecticide Discernment Dr. muller (1939) 1st by German student
2, 4 – D Herbicide
Malathion Flit antimalarial program
Biofuels = Renewable
organophosphate act of CNS combine with phosphors of Cholinesterase & inhibit it in process of nerve gas in world war II
First bioinsecticede = Sporiene.
First bio herbicide = mycoherbicide – phyfthora plamivora.
Hardwood is better than Soft wood.