Mass selection – not need Sc. Knowledge & control of pollination
Bread wheat = Hexaploid
Rice = diploid
Maize = tetraploid
Sugarcane = aneuploidy
Sugarbeet = triploid
Apple / pear = triploid
Pure line = progeny by self-fertilization of single homozygous plant.
Heterosis (Hybrid Vigour) Lost due to inbreeding & recovered due to crossing inbreeds.
Sharbati sonara from Sonora – 64 by mutation breeding using X- rays.
Se-midway variety – lodging resistant, fertilizer, responsive, high yielding
Sonika - insensitive to photoperiods – no grain dormancy – shorter cycle.
Raphanobrassica (Radish X Cabbage) -> Karpechenko
Protoplast induced to fuse by PEG (polyethylene glycol) Perturbation of ionic composition or electro fusion.