in resp of ripening fruit – Climacteric factor
19 glucose molecules are required to produce 38 ATP under anaerobic conditions by yeast cell
TCA = amphibole pathway
TCA catabolism of fat, carbohydrate
TCA anabolism of intermediates to synthesis macromolecules.
E. Coli – DNA polymerase I, II, III (I, II repair, and III replication)
Eukaryotes – DNA polymerase
Prokaryotes – only one origin of replication, UGA – tryptophan (yeast + mitochondria), all RAN single RAN polymerase
mRAN is simultaneously translated during transcription gene are continuous & collinear
mRAN – polycistronic
Eukaryotes – several origin of replication, UGA = stop signal, all RAN by polymerase, mRAN is processed & then transported genes of exon + intron. mRAN = monocistronic
Helicase –unwinds helix, topoisomerase – breaks DNA (e.g. DNA gyrase)
Short stretch of RAN = Primer formed on DNA template by enzyme Primase (stepping stone)
Lading strand 5 feet -> 3 feet – continuous
Lagging strand 3 feet –> 5 feet (but oka zaki fragment 5 feet -> 3 feet)- semi discontinuous replication
Exonuclease – engineering degrade nucleic acid from ends, if 3 feet -> 5 feet removed of 3 feet end (Called proof reading crediting)
Endonuclease – engineering degrade nucleic acid from between.
Frequency of wrong base – 3 : 10,00,000 in DNA replication reduced to 1:1 billion.
If 5 feet – 3 feet Exonuclease activity remove DNA damaged portion by external source
Single recessive gene – phenylketonuria, goitourous, Cretinism, albinism, alkaptonuria conidia exposed to X-rays increment change of mutation.
Garrod – one mutant gene – one metabolic block concept
Primitive code (Archetyped code) – 16 anticoden providing only is A.A.
Wobble Hypothesis – 3rd base is not imp – allows economy of no. of tRAN molecules.
Weissman – human leucocyte interferon gene (1 F N - )
Most imp. Control over gene example occurs by control over transcription by regulatory genes.
Genes, which are inactive, have a tendency to bind to methyl Group.
DNA in Bacteria : Eukaryote = 1 :1000 (protein CAP (catabolic activator pathway) facilities felting of RAN polymerase & DNA to rate of transcription)
Antibiotic puromycin > Translation
Antibiotic actinomycin D > RaN synthesis in pro + eukaryote
RUBISCO – 16% of chloroplast protein, most abundant protein on earth stoma of chloroplast molecular weight = 557000
To protect own DNA from own restriction synthesis by bacteria only engineering bacteria adds CH3 group = modification
Exons are expressing
Introns removed off.
Peptide bond is catalyzed by 23 rRAN catalyze.
Peptidyl transfers rectangle do not consume high energy phosphate bard + bond, energy of the charged tRAN is converted into peptide bond
Fluorescence – isolated chlorophyll in pure form emits red color.
Cartonsome – Shield pigment protects the chlorophyll from photo oxidation
1 quanta some = 200 – 240 chlorophyll molecules.