NCERT Class 9 Economics Chapter 4: Food Security in India YouTube Lecture Handouts

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NCERT Class 9 Economics Chapter 4: Food Security in India

NCERT Class 9 Economics

Chapter 4: Food Security in India

Food Security = Buffer Stock + PDS

  • Availability of food: Domestic Production, Imports & previous stock
  • Accessibility: Within reach of every person.
  • Affordability: Ample money to buy sufficient, safe and nutritious food for one՚s needs

Why Food Security?

  • For BPL families
  • Natural Disaster – Earthquake, Drought, Flood, Tsunami
  • Shortage of Food Price Affordability Starvation
  • Famine: Deaths by starvation & epidemics by contaminated water
  • 1942 – Devastating famine of West Bengal
  • Famine affected areas: Kalahandi and Kashipur in Orissa, Baran district of Rajasthan, Palamau district of Jharkhand

How Are Food Insecure?

  • Landless people with little or no land to depend upon
  • Traditional artisans
  • Providers of traditional services
  • Petty self-employed workers
  • Destitute including beggars
  • Ill-paid occupation
  • Casual Labour
  • Social Composition – , , sections of OBCs
  • Natural Disasters
  • Pregnant & nursing mothers
  • Children under age of 5 years


  • High incidence of poverty, tribal and remote areas
  • Regions more prone to natural disasters
  • Uttar Pradesh (E & SE) , Bihar, Jharkhand, Orissa, West Bengal, Chhattisgarh, parts of Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra - largest number of food insecure people in India


  • Expression of poverty
  • Chronic: inadequate diet in terms of quantity and quality – low income group
  • Seasonal: food growing and harvesting cycles – common in rural (seasonal variation) & urban (causal labour)
Comparing Indian States and African Countries

Global Hunger Index

  • International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) calculates GHI scores - Components
  • Undernourishment: Proportion of undernourished as percent of the population (reflect population with insufficient caloric intake)
  • Child wasting: Proportion of children under 5 years who suffer from wasting (low weight for their height, reflect acute under nutrition)
  • Child stunting: Proportion of children under 5 years who suffer from stunting (low height for their age, reflecting chronic under nutrition)
  • Child mortality: the mortality rate of children under the age of five
  • 2015 revision: Replaces child underweight as two indicators of child under-nutrition as child wasting and child stunting

GHI - India

  • 2015: India ranked 97 out of 118 nations
  • Below India: Extremely poor African countries - Niger, Chad, Ethiopia and Sierra Leone & 2 India՚s neighbours: Afghanistan and Pakistan
  • Above India: Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Nepal and China
India on Global Hunger Index
India and Neighbours What Makes up Indias Hunger?


Hunger: Distress associated with lack of food. FAO defines food deprivation, or undernourishment, as the consumption of food that is not sufficient to provide the minimum amount of dietary energy that each individual requires to live a healthy and productive life, given his or her sex, age, stature and physical activity level.

Under nutrition: Beyond calories and signifies deficiencies in any or all of the following: energy, protein, or essential vitamins and minerals. Due to inadequate intake of food in terms of either quantity or quality, poor utilization of nutrients due to infections or other illnesses, or a combination of these factors.

Malnutrition: Under nutrition + over nutrition (problems of unbalanced diets, too many calories, with or without low intake of micronutrient-rich foods) .

India is aiming at Self-sufficiency in Foodgrains since Independence

Green revolution – Wheat followed by rice, highest in Punjab & Haryana

Buffer Stock: Stock of foodgrains, namely wheat and rice procured by the government through Food Corporation of India (FCI)

Minimum Support Price: Farmers are paid a pre-announced price for their crops, declared before sowing season – incentive

Issue Price: Distribute foodgrains in the deficit areas and among the poorer strata of society at a price lower than the market price

How the Public Distribution System Works

PDS Antyodaya cards for poorest of the poor BPL cards for those below poverty line APL cards for all others

Central Government

Rationing in India

  • Started in
  • Acute shortage in
  • – Poverty by NSSO
  • three important food
  • Public Distribution System (PDS) for food grains
  • Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) - 1975
  • Food-for-Work (FFW) - introduced in 1977 – 78
  • Poverty Alleviation Programs (PAPs) - mostly in rural areas
  • National Food for Work Program - November 14,2004 in 150 most backward districts of the country
  • Antyodaya Anna Yojana (AAY) - poorest of poor
  • Annapurna Scheme (APS) – 2000 – indigent senior citizens

Revamped & Targeted PDS

List of Scheme and Related Information

PDS Benefits

  • Stabilizes price
  • Food at affordable price
  • Price with poor households
  • Income security to farmers
  • Supply from surplus to deficit areas

PDS - Limitations

  • Instances of hunger
  • Pest infestation
  • Deterioration in quality
  • High storage cost
  • Higher food stock than required
  • Diversion of grains to open market
  • Poor quality

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