Forming the Soil-Factors, 4 Methods and 13 Types YouTube Lecture Handouts

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Forming the Soil - Factors, 4 Methods and 13 Types

Factors Affecting Soil Formation

Soils form from the interplay of five main factors namely Parent material, Time, Climate, Relief and Organisms. Parent material: This refers to the mineral material, or organic material from which the soil is formed.

  • C – Climate: Temperature, precipitation and frost action influence on the soil forming processes
  • O – Organism: All living organisms actively influence the soil forming process. These include bacteria, fungi, vegetation and animals. Their major influence is the effect on the chemical and physical environment of the soils.
  • V – Vegetation: As the vegetation grows, the roots penetrate deeper and crack the soil and rocks.
  • P – Parent Rock: Parent material is the unconsolidated mineral and organic deposits in which soils are developing and determines the mineralogical composition. It contributes largely to the physical and chemical characteristics of the soil.
  • R – Relief: The shape of the land surface (slope and position) influence the kinds of soils formed.
  • T – Time: Formation of soils is a continuing process and takes several thousand years for significant changes

Others factors include

Hill slope - affects the microclimate of a place. As the slope of the surface increases, so local sun angle increases.

As the local sun angle increases, the intensity of heating increases, leading to warmer surface temperatures and increased evaporation.


Addition for Soil Formation


Subtraction for Soil Formation


Eluviation and Illuviation


  • Humification
  • Compaction
  • Horizonation
  • Mineralization


  • Podsolization
  • Laterization
  • Calcification
  • Decalcification
  • Salinization (Solonization/Alkalization)
  • Desalinization (Solodization/Dealkalization)