Goh Cheng Leong Chapter 19 – Warm Temperate Western Mediterranean Climate YouTube Lecture Handouts

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Goh Cheng Leong Chapter 19: Warm Temperate Western Mediterranean Climate
Arctic or Polar Type
  • Western area between
  • Shifting of wind belts
  • Winter rain climate

Dry Warm Summer with offshore trades

  • Trade winds are offshore – no rain
  • Air is dry – intense heat & RH is low
  • Interior – prolonged droughts
  • Night – Rapid radiation & frosts are rare

Rainfall in winter with on-shore Westerlies – rainfall in winter when Westerlies shift equatorward

  • N. Hemisphere – On-shore westerlies bring cyclonic rain
  • Heavy showers with bright sunny periods
  • Mountains act as barrier to onshore westerlies – Iberia, Meseta & Sierra – Portugal coast is wetter than E. Spain
  • Steep hills of eastern Adriatic – rainiest
  • Rain starts in Sept. , peak in Oct.
  • Can cause floods – Libson (1967)

Climate is transition b/w Trade wind hot desert (S) & Cool temperate maritime (N)

Local Winds

Sirocco- Hot, dry dusty wind – from Sahara – most frequent in spring – accompanied by depressions.

  • Chili – Tunisia
  • Ghibli – Libya
  • Leveche – Spain
  • Khamsin – Egypt & Malta
  • Gharbi – Adriatic & Aegean Sea – cause fog & rain – blood rain (red dust)
  • Mistral – Cold wind from north – down to Rhone valley (40 - 80 miles/hr) – funneling effect (b/w Alps & Central Massif)
  • Bora – cold northeasterly wind along Adriatic coast – difference in pressure b/w continental Europe and Mediterranean – occur in winter
  • Tramontana – cold wind
  • Gregale – cold wind

Natural Vegetation

  • Trees with small broad leaves
  • Absence of shade
  • Growth slow in cooler & wetter season
  • Growth restricted to autumn and spring – good moisture & high temp.
  • Mediterranean evergreen – open woodlands – evergreen oaks (cork oak – Spain & Portugal- thick bark for wine-making bottle cork & its export) . Australia – Eucalyptus, Jarrah & karri. California – giant sequoia or redwoods
  • Evergreen coniferous trees – pines, firs, cedar & cypress
  • Mediterranean bushes – low bush in scattered clump – laurel, lavender, rosemary. Scrub vegetation – scattered, stunted tree and tall bushes –
  • Maquis – France
  • Macchia – Italy
  • Chaparral – California
  • Mallee Scrub – Australia

Limestone upland – thin soil – xerophytic ground creeper (garrigue)

Grass – slow growing, wiry, bunchy

Economic Development

Mediterranean shorelands – cradle of civilization

Orchard framing – citrus fruits – orange, lime, lemon, citron, grapefruit – long roots to draw water in summer droughts

Irrigation canals – Great Valley of California, Vale of Chile, Negev Desert of Israel

  • Sunkist oranges – squash – California
  • Seville oranges – marmalade – Spain
  • Jaffa oranges – Israel
  • Tangerine oranges – Tangiers
  • Mandarin oranges – China & Japan

70 % orange export from Mediterranean

Olives – Hardy & long rooted – survive on poor limestone with scanty rainfall – versatile, species, oil, cooking, soap etc.

Nuts – chestnut, almond, walnut, hazelnut

Fruits – Peach, apricot, pear, plum, cherry, fig

Wheat – hard winter wheat – macaroni, spaghetti, vermicelli (sowing in autumn)

Barley – important cereal

Wine

Best from grapes – 85 % grapes used for wine

Viticulture – wine production – 3 ⁄ 4th from Mediterranean region

Wine as national drink – Spain, Portugal, France & Italy

Wine cultivation – climate, soil, fermentation

  • Sherry – France
  • Port Wine – Portugal
  • Asti & Marsala – Italy
  • Champagne in Paris (France)
  • Bordeaux in Garonne (France)
  • Burgundy in Rhone-Saone Valley (France)

Dried Grapes

  • Currants – Levantine grapes
  • Raisins – California
  • Sultanas – Asia Minor

Also known for fruit canning, flour milling & food processing

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