Geography of Oxygen Shortage Petroleum and Explosives Safety Organisation YouTube Lecture Handouts

Doorsteptutor material for CBSE/Class-7 is prepared by world's top subject experts: get questions, notes, tests, video lectures and more- for all subjects of CBSE/Class-7.

Geography of Oxygen Shortage

Title: Geography of Oxygen Shortage is It an Issue of Production or Distribution - Way Forward

  • India had exported 9,301 metric tonnes of oxygen across the world between April 2020 and January 2021. In comparison, the country had exported only 4,502 metric tonnes of oxygen in FY 20. The oxygen supplied was in liquid form and can be used for both industrial and medical use.
  • However, the demand for oxygen in India was not as high during the aforementioned period. During the first wave, the demand for liquid medical oxygen (LMO) increased from 700 metric tonnes per day (MTPD) to 2,800 MTPD. But during the second wave, it has skyrocketed to 5,000 MTPD.

PESO (Petroleum and Explosives Safety Organisation)

Petroleum and Explosives Safety Organisation
  • In a single day, Kerala՚s oxygen plants can produce up to 199 metric tonnes of medical oxygen. An average of the past six days until April 18 shows that Kerala used 89.75 metric tonne of medical oxygen per day.
  • INOX Air Products Private Limited, which is located in Kanjikode
  • In a single day, Kerala՚s oxygen plants can produce up to 199 metric tonnes of medical oxygen. An average of the past six days until April 18 shows that Kerala used 89.75 metric tonne of medical oxygen per day.
  • Before 2020,40 % of the oxygen produced by Inox in Palakkad went to various industries. The rest (60 %) was sold as liquid medical oxygen to hospitals in the state.
  • Praxair India private limited, a private manufacturing plant located in Eloor, Ernakulam, and Kerala Metals and Minerals Ltd (KMML) a PSU at Kollam produces 6 metric tonne of medical oxygen per day. The 11 ASUs mentioned can produce a total of 44 metric tonne of liquid oxygen per day.
  • KMML turns wasted oxygen to liquid medical oxygen. Plant purifies, liquefies and separates air into industrial gases such as oxygen and nitrogen.
  • It produced 7 tonnes of ‘waste’ oxygen per day as a by-product of producing 63 tonnes of industrial oxygen (in gaseous form) and 70 tonne of nitrogen. We decided to liquify this wasted oxygen to use them for medical purposes
  • India plans to import 50,000 metric tonnes of medical oxygen to cater to the rising demand.
  • Consumption of medical oxygen in Maharashtra has reached the state՚s full production capacity of 1,250 tonnes. The state has 6.38 lakh active cases of Covid-19, and about 10 % of them an estimated 60,000 - 65,000 are on oxygen support, the highest for any state. Maharashtra is additionally taking 50 tonnes from Chhattisgarh and another 50 tonnes from Gujarat daily. It is also slated to receive 100 tonnes from Reliance՚s plant in Jamnagar, Gujarat.
  • Madhya Pradesh, with 59,193 active patients as on April 16, requires 250 tonnes daily. The state does not have its own manufacturing plant and relies on Gujarat, Chhattisgarh, and Uttar Pradesh for oxygen supply. As cases rise in neighbouring states, MP is staring at the possibility of supplies from there running out. Gujarat՚s requirement has crossed 500 tonnes per day for over 49,737 active Covid-19 cases.
  • The Centre-appointed Empowered Group-2, formed to monitor the supply of essential medical equipment during pandemic, has been focusing on 12 high-burden states — Maharashtra, MP, Gujarat, Rajasthan Karnataka, UP, Delhi, Chhattisgarh, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Punjab and Haryana — where oxygen requirement is set to shoot in the coming days. Over 17,000 tonnes of oxygen will be directed in three batches from states that have surplus oxygen to these 12 states to meet their projected demand.
  • The problem is acute in rural areas, which are going through a rise in Covid-19 cases but have no large storage tankers, and in smaller nursing homes, which rely on daily supply of oxygen cylinders.

Medical Oxygen Producers

  • Inox Air Products
  • Linde India
  • Goyal MG Gases Pvt Ltd

National Oxygen Limited

  • India has the capacity to produce more than 7,000 metric tonnes of medical oxygen. The major manufacturers are Inox Air Products, Linde India, Goyal MG Gases Pvt Ltd, National Oxygen Limited. The largest of these, Inox, produces 2000 tonnes per day.
  • Manufacturers prepare liquid oxygen with 99.5 % purity, which is stored in jumbo tankers, and transported to distributors in cryogenic tankers at a specified temperature. At distributor level, a process of regasification is followed to convert the oxygen into gaseous form and fill it in jumbo cylinders and dura cylinders. These cylinders then go to smaller suppliers or directly to hospitals. The problem is demand is high, but there are not enough cylinders and tankers to store and transport oxygen
  • In the last one year, Inox started two plants in West Bengal and UP to produce 200 and 150 tonnes oxygen respectively per day and more plants in MP, UP, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal

Medical Oxygen Transportation

  • Limited cryogenic tankers in India
  • Lack of jumbo and dura cylinders
  • Higher refilling costs
  • India does not have enough cryogenic tankers to ensure road transport of medical oxygen. Now when oxygen is being transported from one state to another, the travel time it takes from the manufacturer to a patient՚s bed has increased from 3 - 5 days to 6 - 8 days. The smaller a hospital or the more remote its location, the longer the time taken for the oxygen to reach there.
  • Smaller suppliers have also complained they do not have enough jumbo and dura cylinders to keep the flow steady.
  • The increase in cost for transport and logistics has increased the cost of refilling cylinders. A cylinder that would earlier cost ₹ 100 - 150 for refiling, now costs ₹ 500 - 2000.

Medical Oxygen Way Forward

  • Install PSA in far areas
  • Huge storage tanks
  • Usually, 20 out of every 100 patients turn symptomatic and three of them critical. The pool that may require oxygen varies from 10 - 15 per 100 patients. Among solutions that are being worked out or proposed:
  • The Empowered Group plans to identify 100 hospitals in far-flung areas to install pressure swing absorption (PSA) plants, which can manufacture their own oxygen and make the hospitals self-reliant. This will cut transportation costs and delays in oxygen supply to remote parts. Another 162 PSA plants are in the process of completion.
  • Hospitals are setting up huge storage tanks to store supplies that can last at least 10 days.
  • Use train or airlift cylinders
  • Surplus oxygen stocks from iron and steel plants have been diverted for medical use.
  • Last year, an expert committee under the Health Ministry fixed oxygen supply to 40 litres in intensive care units and 15 litres in normal wards per patient per minute. It has advised monitoring of patients on oxygen support daily, and that only those with oxygen saturation levels below 94 % be put on oxygen support.
  • Shift oxygen from iron and steel which was used in auto and consumer durables but their demand is weak.

PSA (Pressure Swing Adsorption)

  • 162 PSA to be established at around ₹ 200 crores
  • Out of 162 PSA plants sanctioned by the union government, 33 have already been installed - five in Madhya Pradesh, four in Himachal Pradesh, three each in Chandigarh, Gujarat, and Uttarakhand, two each in Bihar, Karnataka, and Telangana; and one each in Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Delhi, Haryana, Kerala, Maharashtra, Puducherry, Punjab, and Uttar Pradesh

Developed by: