Society and Economy Gupta

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Gupta:-Agriculture

  • Varahmihira: mentions about rainfall
  • Mathematics was called: Hindisat (the Indian Art) : by the Arab merchants
  • Junagarh Rock Inscription of Skanda Gupta (455 - 58) : state care of agriculture.
  • Amarkosa mentions about plough and sugarcane.
  • Brihat-Samhita: refer to rice
  • Raghuvamasa: Saffron
  • Huien Tsang: Saffron produced at Udayana, Dareel, and Kashmir
  • Kuluta - produced medicinal plants.
  • Pariyatra (Bairat) Variety of rice
  • Jatipattika (woven silk)
  • Kshauma (Linen)
  • Badara (cotton)
  • Dukula (bark silk)
  • Lalatantu (spider՚s silk)
  • Amsuka (Muslim)
  • Netra (Bark-silk)
  • Pulkabandha (Gaily coloured)
  • Pushpapatta (flowered silk)
  • Chitrapata (figured textile)
  • According to Santideva՚s Sikhsha- samuchchaya (7th A. D.) - Varanasi- best for silk garments.
  • H. Tsang - Mathura- cotton
  • At Kamrupa - Textile Industry
  • According to H. Tsang:
  • Copper Image of Buddha - attributed to Purnavarman
  • Brass temple build by Harsha near Nalanda
  • Copper statue of Buddha formed at Sultanagar (Bhagalpur) .
  • H. Tsang - Charita was famous seaport Kongoda (modern Ganjam District)
  • According to Raghuvamsa and Dasakumaracharita: Tamralipti was an important port.

Taxation

  • Bhaga: King՚s customary share - l/ 6th
  • Bhoga: Periodic supplies of fruits, etc.
  • Kara: Periodic tax levied on the villagers
  • Bah: Voluntary offerings Udianga: Police Tax, or Water Tax Uparika: Extra Tax Hiranya: Tax payable in Gold coins Vata Bhuta: Cess for the rites of winds (vata) and spirits Halivakara: Plough Tax Sulka: Merchant - Royal Tax Klpta and Upkta: Purchase and Sales Tax Udranga-Uparikara: Levied on the maintenance of the Police; on fish and other water products; and on the cultivators not having proprietary rights
  • Mulla-kara or Turshka-danda: Impost levied by the central Government to deal with the menace of the maundering tribes

Measuring Rods

  • Nivartana
  • Pattikahala
  • Kedara
  • Bhumi
  • Khandukavapa
  • Pataka
  • Gocharma
  • Kharivapa
  • Kulyavapa
  • Mulyavapa
  • Dronavapa
  • Adhavapa
  • Malikavapa
  • Agrahara Land:
  • Restricted to Brahamana,
  • A village granted tax-free to Brahmins
  • King had power to confiscate it; due to the behavior
  • It underlined the privileged position of the Brahmans
  • Kridasaila - artificial hillock
  • Variyantra - water machine

Guilds

  • According to Katyayana: Puga meant a group of merchants
  • Naigma meant merchants guilds
  • Srenis meant Guild headed by executive officers (Adhyakshas, or Jyesfhaka, or Mukhyas) , usually hereditary in character and not elective - assisted by committee of two or five called Samuhahitavadins: Advisors of the public good and Karachintaka: For Public business.
  • According to Braspati: Guilds had power to punish.
  • Jataka mentions 18 types of Srenis, and 18 commercial classes:
  • Kumhrar,
  • Patala,
  • Svarnakar,
  • Soopkar,
  • Gandhanya (Gandhi) ,
  • Kasvan,
  • Malakar,
  • Katchkar,
  • Tamoli,
  • Champaru,
  • Anntapillak,
  • Gaddi,
  • Chhipp,
  • Kankkar,
  • Shibig,
  • Guar,
  • Milla,
  • Machhuae
  • Arthashastra՚s aone chapter Kantakasodhana is devoted to strict control of artisans and traders by the state.
  • Nagar-sresthins or Srestin: acted as bankers and moneylenders.
  • Srestlii-Kulika-Naigama: Federation or central guild of Bankers, craftsman and guilds
  • Akshyanivi:
  • a permanent endowment with a guild or banker,
  • the guilds spent the profits or interest on the deposits according to the terms stated by the depositors,
  • Sarathvaha: Guild caravan traders
  • Viravalanjigar: The Company of Gentleman Merchant.
  • Manigrama: Southern India Company
  • Antapallas: frontiers
  • Vallabhas: Officers
  • Guilds of Prayag did not issue coins
  • Taxila - administered by Guild on the eve of the Greek occupation
  • Magadha was not an important centre of Guilds.
  • Only distribution was not fixed by the Guilds.
  • Mandasore Silk Weavers՚ donation is famous
  • Kautilya - Sthitipatras-deed convention made by Srenis
  • Clay seals have been discovered from Basarh (Ancient Vaisali) and Bhita (Allahabad)
  • Sambhuya Samuthana -business in partnership
  • According to Brishaspati and Katyayna: there were four grades of artisans:
  • The Apprentice: Shiksha,
  • The Advanced Student: Abhijna,
  • The Expert: Kusala,
  • The Teacher: Acharya
Map of Gupta Empire Showing Major Rivers and Regions

Important Towns

  • Indo-Greeks
  • Sakas
  • Kushanas
  • 1st AD
  • Kapisa,
  • Kapisa,
  • Kapisa Vidisha,
  • Taxila,
  • Savira,
  • Ujjaini,
  • Pushkalavati,
  • Pushkalavati,
  • Gandhara,
  • Prabhasa,
  • Vidisha,
  • Mathura Pushkalvati,
  • Suparaka,
  • Sakala, Sindhu,
  • Sindhu Dasapura

Trade Routes

  • Subsidiary routes: Exceept Vidisha
  • Varanasi to Mathura
  • Varanasi to Vaishali
  • Saket to Saraswati
  • Kapilvastu to Rajagriha
  • Champa to Tamralipti
  • Kausambi- branch to Brigukachha (Broach)
  • Royal Road- Patliputra to Tamila connected by Maurya Except - Vidisha
  • Branch take off - Kausambi
  • During Guptas: Overland route to China added
  • The pass of Khyber and the valley of Kabul - main land route between India and West Asia.

Medieval Towns

Town Founder

  • Muzaffarnagar
  • Muzaffar Khan-i-Khanan Muradabad Rustam Khan Deccani and named after Prince
  • Murad Baksh Farrukhabad Muhammad Khan Bangash in the honour of Farrukhsiyar
  • GhaziabadGhazi al Din ‘Imad-al-Mulk’ Najibabad Najib-al-Daulah Fyzabad Safdar Jung
  • Rampur Faizullaha Khan Ekdil Saksena Kayastha, originally Sarai Rupa Yakdilabad
  • Yakdil Khan Hyderabad Mohd. Quli Quitb Shah Charminar Ibrahim Quli

Emporium/Ports

  • According to Periplus Maris Erythreeal or Periplus of the Erythrean Sea. Erythrean Sea is Red Sea, 60 A. D. Periplus = sailing chart
    • Barabaricum Emporium (town known as Minnagara on the Indus delta)
    • Tamralipti- Eastern Coast Greatest called Voyagers from China, Indonesia, and Sri Lanka. Ganga was the same name-according to Periplus.
    • Bharukachha and Barygaza- Oldest, West Asia, western India (modern Broach) greatest during Maurayas and post Maurayas
    • Surparakha - Sopara- town Kalyan
    • Muziris - Malabar Coast
    • Kaveripattnam- Tamil coast, yavana ships- city overflowed with prosperity.
    • Arikamedu - also known Padouke in Periplus- Roman factory for Muslin.
    • Negapattnam: Nikam
    • Nasalia or Masulipatnam - (According to Periplus)

Non-Agricultural Products

  • Ardhakathanaka: written by Banarsi Dasa: mentions 36 Sudras caste of Jaunpur
  • Nagara Sabha: compiled by Abdur Rahim Khan-i-Khanan
  • Cotton yarn: Braoch, Balasore, Karimnagar; EIC exported cotton yarn from
  • Gujarat, Burhanpur and Bengal.
  • Earliest reference available to Jute cloth is in the Alivardi Khan՚s reign
  • Chambal Oil: Gujarat
  • Tobacco introduced in 17th century by Portuguese during the reign of Akbar and Jahangir
  • Iron -self-sufficient-Dutch exported iron products from Coromandel to Batavia
  • Saltpetre - Patna-Nunia and Malangi-specialised caste
  • Salt: Sambhar Lake
  • Woodwork: Kashmir, Gujarat
  • Boots: Lahore
  • Leatherwork: Multan
  • Perfumes: Patna
  • Paper: Shahzalpur near Allahabad

Aurangs: Specialized Caste

  • Srinagar: Swals and woollen
  • Jaunpur: Woollen Carpets
  • Kalpi: Sugar candy
  • Alwar: Glass
  • Kasimbazar: Dutch Silk Factory
  • Burhanpur: Tobacco
  • Bengal exported Sugar and Raw Silk, wax, lac
  • Gujarat exported raw cotton
  • Malabar sent Pepper
  • Coromandel: Skins

Indian Imports

  • Tin: Malaya
  • Ivory: Eastern Africa
  • Dyewoods: Persian Gulf
  • Mocha: was called “The treasure Chest of the Mughal”
  • Indigo: Sarkhej (Gujarat) and Bayana (Agra)
  • Abdul Ghafar: Gujarat՚s greatest merchants and ship owner
  • Rustam Manak: a merchant managed to secure Parsis to be exempted from the payment of Zaziya.
  • Rezariya: Small peasants: Malles in Rajasthan and Kunbis in Maharashtra.
  • Jihat, Sair, Furuat, Abwab: were the rural taxes.

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