Post-Maurya or Pre-Gupta Period: Forgoing Successors of Maury՚S

Glide to success with Doorsteptutor material for UGC : Get detailed illustrated notes covering entire syllabus: point-by-point for high retention.

Forgoing Successors of Maury՚S

Causes for Foreign Invasions

  • Development in Central Asia the inability of the Central Asian tribe՚s kike selves in their one lands and their Mabel it to move into Chine due to the Great Wall built by Shih Huang Ti in 220 BC and hence their invasion of Bactria
  • Weakness of the Seleucid Empire ruled by the Greeks The Greeks thus pressed by the Central Asian tribes were forced to invade India
  • Inability of the successors of Asoka as well as the Sugars and Canvas assai accessions of Maury՚s) to offer stiff resist trance to the foreign invaders

Indo- Greeks

Also known as Bactrian Greeks they were the first foreign rulers of north-western Inca in the post Maura period Simultaneous exist emcee of two Greek dynasties viz dynasty of Eueratides and that of Esthete muss; Menander the most famous of all the Indo Greek rulers (Melinda Padho a Buddhist text records his discussion with Magazine the Buddhist philosopher and his conversion to Buddhis in) importance of their rule-they were the first to issue gold coins in India and also the Inset to issue coins which can be at tribute to the kings with definiteness intro duct ion of Hellenistic are features in the north-wanton India facilitating the rest of Gandhara art

Sakes

Also known as Scythians they placed the Indo- Greeks in India. Among the five branches of Sakes with their seats of power in different parts of India, the most import ant was the one which ruled in western India till the 4th century AD . Mega or Moues- the earliest Saka ruler of India (belonging to the Sakes of Axilla) ; the most famous Saka ruler in India (Sakes of western India) was Rudradaman I (130 - 150AD) , who is Famous not only for his military conquests (particular larky against the Satavahanas) but also for his public works (he repaired the famous Sudarshan lake) and his patronage of San- skirt (he, issued the first- ever long inscription in chaste Sanskrit) .

Parthians

Originally living in north- western India but controlled an area much smaller than that controlled by either the Sakes or the Indo Greeks. The most famous Parthian was Gonophores (St. Thomas came to India to propagate Christianity during his reign) .

Keshena՚S

One of the five Yeti clans of Central Asia replaced the Parthians in north-western In die and then expanded to the lower Indus basin and the upper and middle Gang etic basin; two Keshena dynasties-dynasty of Kadphises (Kukupa Kadphises and Vim Kadphises) followed by that of Kanishka the most famous of all the Keshena rulers was Kanishka who is famous for starting the Saka era in 78 AD (Vikram era began in 58 BC after the victory of the Ujjain king Vikramaditya over Sakes) and for his patron age of Mahayana Buddhism; his patronage of Vasucaritra Nagarjuna Asvaghosha (Bud- deist scholars) and Charaka (court physician famous for Chari Samiti) ; his capital (Peshawar or Purusha Pura in Pakistan last great Keshena ruler-Vasudeva I decline of the Keshena՚s after Vasudeva and their re- placement in north India by the Nags and i.e.. the portly – western India by the Tasmanian rollers of Persist.

Trade and Commerce

Dark Age or Mercantile Age

In contrast to the Maryann period the pea- rood between 200 BC and 300 AD was an age of small kingdoms Hence many or Thodi historians consider it as the Dark Age

Dark Age or Mercantile Age

But modern historians consider it as the Mercantile Age of India because of the thriving trade that was carried on during this period

Main Features

  • An extra- ordinary expansion and elbow- ration of trading activities and a core- spending increase in the range of exports and imports.
  • The opening of the remote parts of the country and the discovery of new Chan- news of communication; discovery by Hiatus of the Monsoon Route ′ to India from west Asia (46 AD) , the establishment of the Silk Route from China to Europe through India and sea- route to South East Asia from India.
  • The increasing organisation of trade through guilds, increased monetization of trade with the increase in the number of coins, etc.
  • Trade seems to have been conducted in luxury items and not in necessary items.
  • Favorable balance to trade for India as is evident from the complaints of Roman writers like pliny that bullion was flow- ing out of their country to India.

Impact on Economy

  • Technical Changes: There seems to be a significant advancement of technology and consequent improvement in the general standards of goods produced.
  • Development of Guilds: We can see the development of guilds as autonomous bodies and an increase in their economic activities. The guilds came to play the roles of financier, banker and trustee. We also have evidence of close cooperation between rulers and guild merchants.
  • Extension of Agriculture: Trade seems to have had its effect on agricultural activity also, which must have continued to from the backbone of the economy in large parts of the country. Gifts of land from western Deccan demonstrate the encouragement given to bring new lands under cultivation. A number of agricultural products were exported which must have given a general boost to areas cultivating these crops.

Impact on Society

  • Religious Developments: There was a significant increase in the popularity of the het-eroded sects, especially of Buddhism and Jainism, because of the support given to them by the mercantile community and also the foreigners such as the Greeks, Keshena ′ s, etc. Another development was a gradual shift in emphasis by the Brahmins from ritual alone to the view that a completely personal real township between god and the devotee was possible. The idea of personal devotion or bhakti ′ was the main weapon with which Brahmanism sought to meet the challenge of both Buddhism and Jainism, which however suffered schism due to the impact of material benefits.
  • Cultural Synthesis: The flourishing trade led to interaction between not only different Indian cultures but also Indian and foreign cultures, leading to their synthesis. We hear of voyages of daring merchants to Malay Peninsula (Suvarnabhumi) , Indonesian Archie pelage (Suvarnadvipa) . Cambodia (Cambodia) and Annam (Champa) . Indians regularly visited the ports of Saudi Arabia and East Africa. We also hear of Havana settlements in India, more so in the south (Arikamedu, pusher or Kaveripattinam, Muziris, etc.) . than in the north. All this led to the spread of Indian culture to South East Asia. Central Asia and West Asia and also the India culture intern was being influenced by the cultures of these areas.
  • Development of Art and Architecture: There was a sudden spurt in donations made to religious institutions by people՚s living in regions connected with commercial and manufacturing activities. We have in fact epigraphs recording gifta made by caravan leaders. Rear chants, gold- smiths and perfumers in, Solara. Kalyana, Katsambis, Mathura. Etc.

Developed by: