Vedic Literature-Comparison between Vedic and Later Vedic Period

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Vedic Religion Comparison between Vedic and Later Vedic Period

Rigvedic Period

  • There is mention about 3 basic gods. There are 33 other gods who are related to the three Gods:
  • Celestial
  • Antriksha
  • Earth
  • The celestial gods are called Vyusthana
  • Antriksha gods also called Arial Gods, atmosphere, madhyansthan

Celestial Gods

  1. Varuna
  2. Mitra
  3. Ashwin Nasatya and Dastra
  4. Pushan
  5. Vishnu
  6. Aditi: Surya, Sairtra, Mitra, Aryaman Daksh, Aush
  7. Vivasvans
  8. Usha

Antriksha God

  1. Indra
  2. Rudra
  3. Apananpath
  4. Marut
  5. Vayu
  6. Pajarnya
  7. Vivsvat
  8. Yama
  9. Prajapati

Earth God

  1. Dayayush
  2. Agni
  3. Som
  4. Apanpath
  5. Vrihaspati
  6. Mata Rishwana
  7. Apti
  8. Prithivi
  9. Saraswati,
  10. Ila
  11. Bharti
  12. These categories and classification is not clear
  13. They are overlapping: e. g. : Prithvi and Tavashtari are assigned to all three aspects, Agni and Usa in Ariel and Earth, Varuna and Savitri in Arial and Celestial

Celestial Gods

  • Varuna Was an icon of mortality,
    • He has been mentioned in Bhogaz - Koi inscriptions
    • He has been mentioned in 30 hymns
    • He is also called head of the ethics as well as. Rta
    • He with Mitra evoked as a best over of rain, regulates the season
    • He is equated with Iranian God Ahurmazdah
  • Mitra is very closely related with varuna, only one hymn is addressed to him alone
    • In Rig Veda, he is also mentioned as brother of varuna but at another place is also known as the brother of Indra
  • Surya is like Greek god - ‘Helois’ .
  • Savitri is pre-eminently a golden deity
    • Gayatri mantra is dedicated to her
  • Pusan has a beard and breaded hair
    • chariot drawn by the goats carries a golden spear
    • his favourite food is ‘Karambha’
    • He is connected with marriage and wedding hymns
    • acts as envoy of Surya with his golden aerial sheeps and as a Charioteer also called Aghrini.
  • Atmospheric GodIndra is the favourite national god of Rig Veda and has been mentioned 250 times
    • Has been mentioned as war god
    • Has been mentioned as Purandar - who has broken the forts
    • Is a carwarrior - Rath-estra his arms bear the Baji
    • Is more addicted to soma and hence is called Sompala som drinker,
    • Also called Marutvant (ally of Marut)
    • He is called Vritrahan (he killed the Vratra (a cloud daemon) vratra held back the water, Indra killed him and got the rain and hence is also called the rain god or rainmaker
    • He is also called ‘Jeetendra’ , ‘Hiranyagarbhi’ , ‘Satakratu’ and ‘Magvan’ according to the Bhogaj-koi inscriptions he is also called Apuit-conquering in the waters.

Words Orginated from the Word GAU (Cow)

Orginated Words of GAU
GodhuliTime measuring unit
Gavyutt.Distance measuring unit
GocfaarmanDistance measuring unit
  • Cow was also called as Aghanya.
  • Soma King of plants (also terrestrial god)
    • 9th mandal of the Rig Veda is dedicated to him
    • He resides in munjavant.
  • Marut a group of deities are collecterecy called the marut
    • They were lesser gods of storm
    • They are supposed to be the sons of Rudra and Prishni (a cow)
    • Maruts are also called the Gauas and Sardha
    • They are associated with vidhyut
    • Their main function is to shed rain, which is either called milk honey or Ghee.
  • Rudra:- he is the god of tribes and has breaded hair and means golden ornaments called Nishka
    • He is also called the archer god
    • His arrow brought the diseases

Terrestrial Gods

  • Agni is mentioned 200 times in the Rig Veda
    • Is also mentioned in the Bhogaj-koi inscriptions
    • Is the intermediary between god and man hence is the earliest symbol of Monism.


Brihaspati is also called brahmanaspati (lord of prayer)

  • Like Agni both a domestic priest and brahmnana priest and is the generator of all prayersalso called the creator and came to be known as Brahma in the Vedanta society

Apa is water god

Vayu is wind god

Rajanya rain god

Dayayush He is the god of heaven and is identified with Greek God Jews and later god of Jupiter He is one of the oldest among the Vedic deities.

Yama He is the lord of death he is the first to have died and is the guardian of world of fathers.

Female Goddess

  • IIa Goddess of offerings
  • Savita solar goddess
  • Puramodhi goddess of fertility
  • Dishana goddess of vegetation
  • Vak Goddess of right
  • Ratri Goddess of right
  • Aranyani Goddess of forest or goddess of nature

Religion in Later Vedic Period

  • In the later Vedic period, religion started more guided towards monotheism
  • Sacrifices started declining and Vedic god՚s position started declining especially the position of Varuna, Indra, Agni faded out
  • The Vak Devi, Agni faded out
  • The concept of soul became popular
  • Upanishads became more important and stressed very little on sacrifices and followed Gyanmarg
  • New the early Upanishads started the Ashrams especially three Ashram.
  • Older Upanishads have not mentioned about the 4th Ashram - Sanyas.
  • Prajapati became more popular
  • The later Vedic period represented a transition from Kandmarg to Karmmarg by Gyanmarg

Secular Literature of Rig Vedic Period

  1. Rashi mathematics
  2. Nidhi chronology
  3. Vak-Vakya dialectics
  4. Ekyana ethics
  5. Devjan Vidhya dance and music

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