Bahmani Kingdom

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Bahmani Empire

Map of Bahmani Empire

It was founded by a centurion tribesman - Amiran-i-Sadah;

  • Ismail Mukh declared independence;
  • He adopted the title Abul Fath;
  • But the actual founder was Hasan Gangu (1341 - 1358) ;
  • He adopted the title Zafar Khan;
  • Nasiruddin Ismail Shah i.e.. Ismail Mukh relinquished his throne in favour of Jafar Khan 1341;
  • Hasan Gangu was a native of Delhi;
  • He was a servant of a Brahman Gangu;
  • One astrologer told him that if he adopted the title ‘Gangu’ then he would become the king;
  • He did so and became a king;
  • He adopted the title Allauddin Bahman Shah on 11th August 1347;
  • He made Gulbarga his capital;
  • He defeated Kotagir, Kalyan, Malkhed, Bidar, Goa, Dhabol, Kolhapur, and some parts of Telangana;
  • He renamed Gulbarga as Ahsanabad;
  • He created 4 provinces called ′ Taraf:
  • Bidar;
  • Gulbarga;
  • Berar;
  • Daulatabad;

Mohammad I (1358 - 1375)

  • He declared Jehad against the Hindu rulers;
  • He made elaborate changes in administration;
  • Wazir-i-Asraf was the foreign minister;
  • Tarafdars were his Governors;
  • He declared Jehad against Warrangal, Orissa and Vijayanagar; Mujahid Shah (1375 - 1378)
  • During his reign, his nobility was divided into two groups;
    1. Foreigners;
    2. Local or Deccani Daud I (1378)
  • Mohammad I (1378 - 1397)
  • During his reign a famine took place;
  • He imported food grains from Malwa and Gujarat; Feroze Shah Bahmani (1397 - 1422)
  • According to Farishta he was a scholar of
  • Arabian;
  • Kamada;
  • Persian;
  • Telgu;
  • Marathi
  • He lost once and won twice against the Vijayanagar Empire;
  • Gesudaraz, one of the great sufi saints, lived during his reign;
  • He was defeated by Devarai I;
  • He invited Afaqui (foreigners) to assist him;
  • He built observatories at Daulatabad;
  • According to Faristha, he married Deva Rai՚s daughter;
  • He built the city of Firozabad, situated on the bank of river Bhima;
  • He was a great Calligra-pher;

Ahmad Shah Wali (1422 - 1436)

  • He shifted his capital from Gulbarga to Bidar in 1424;
  • He was called ‘Wali’ because he was a great follower of Gesudheraj;
  • During his reign, Bahmani fought for the first time against Malwa and Gujarat; Humayun Shah (1458 - 1461)
  • He is known as ‘Zalim’ i.e.. tyrant;
  • He appointed Md. Gwan as his Prime Minister; Ahmad Shah II (1461 - 1463)
  • He was just 9 years old when he ascended the throne;
  • Mahmood Gawan was the defacto along with Nargis Begum - Mother of Ahmad Shah I;

Md. Shah M (1463 - 1482)

  • Mahmood Gawan remained the defacto;
  • He adopted the title ‘Laskari’ ;
  • Russina traveller Nikitin visited during his reign;
  • Mahmood Gawan built Madarsa near Bidar during his reign;
  • Md. Shah III executed Mahmood Gawan in a misunderstanding, when he came to know the reality, he too died;

Mahmood Shah (1482 - 1518)

  • When he ascended the throne, he was a minor;
  • Malik Naib was the defacto;
  • After Naib; Rasim Barid became the defacto;
  • The faction between the Deccani and foreigners led to the disintegration of the empire;
  • Kalimullah was the last king of Bahmani Empire, up to 1530 and then the empire was divided into 5 parts
  • Adil Shahi dynasty - Bijapur;
  • Qutub Shahi dynasty - Golconda;
  • Nizam Shahi dynasty - Ahmadnagar;
  • Barid Shahi dynasty - Bidar;
  • Imad Shahi dynasty - Berar;

Imad Shahi dynasty was the first dynasty to break from the Bahmani Empire;

Berar was the first Bahmani Empire to secede from the Bahmani Empire;

Successors of Bahmani Empire

Nizam Shahi (Ahmadnagar)

  • In 1490, Malik Ahmad, Governor of Junar declared him independent;
  • He was the son of Nizam-ul-Mulk Bahri, Originally a Brahmin of Vijaynagar and his original name was Tima Bhatt;
  • Nizam-ul-Mulk was converted by Ahmad Shah;
  • The Bahmani Sultan and the new name was Malik Hasan;
Malik Ahmad (1494 - 1509)
  • He founded Ahmadnagar, situated on the bank of river Sina;
  • He shifted his capital from Junar to Ahmadnagar; Burhan Nizam Shah I (1509 - 1553) :
  • He was the first king to assume the title of Shah;
  • In 1537, he adopted Shia faith;
  • His hostility with Bijapur increased;
  • In 1542, he captured Sholapur, but lost it later;
Hassain Nizam Shah I (1553 - 65)
  • He was the first person who formed a Muslim confederacy to defeat Vijaynagar in the battle of RAKSHITANDAI;
Murtaza Nizam Shah I (1565 - 88)
  • Was a minor when became the king;
  • His mother Khanzada or Khuja Humayun Sultana was the defacto;
  • In 1572, he annexed Berar;
Hassain Nizam Shah II (1588 - 89)
Ismail Nizam Shah II (1589 - 91)
  • During his period there was struggle between Mahadavi and Shia sect;
Burhan Nizam Shah II (1591 - 95)
  • Shia sect was re-established;
  • During his reign the famous book Burhan-i-Maathir was compiled;
  • He attacked the Portuguese; Chand Bibi (1600)
  • She was the widow of Adil Shah;
  • She conceded Berar to the Mughals to sue peace;
  • She was killed in 1600 and the whole administration went into the hands of Malik Amber;
Malik Amber
  • He belonged to Abyssinian family;
  • He was born in 1549;
  • During Murtaza Nizam Shah, he became the Prime Minister; also known as Va-kil-us-Sultanate;
  • He married Murtaza՚s daughter;
  • The nominated ruler during his time was Murtaza Nizam Shah I (1600 - 1630) ;
  • In 1607, Malik Amber transferred his capital to Junar;
  • He won the battle of Bhatvadi;
  • He was the greatest statesman of Deccan;
  • He was tolerant;
Hassain Nizam Shah II (1630 - 1635) :-
  • In 1636, Ahmadnagar was captured by the Mughals;

Adil Shahi Dynasty off Bijapur

  • Yusuf Adil Khan founded the dynasty in 1490;
  • He was a Georgian slave;
Ismail Adil Khan (1510 - 1534)
  • In 1504, he captured Gulbarga;
  • He was a skilled musician;
Tsmail Adil Khan (1510 - 1534)
  • He established Sunni faith as the state religion;
  • During his reign Albequerque, the Portuguese Governor captured Goa;
  • He was a great patron of Art;
  • He married a Maratha lady Babuji Khannum;
  • He was an expert painter;
Malu Adil Khan (1534 - 15351
Ibrahim Adil Shah I (1535 - 1557)
  • He was the first to adopt the title of Shah;
  • He replaced Persian by Hindavi Deccani Urdu;
  • In 1555, he employed the Marathas for the first time;
  • He defeated the Vijaya-nagar king; Rama Raya;
Ali Adil Shah I (1557 - 1580)
  • He re-established Shia faith; during his reign, the wall of Bijapur city was constructed;
  • He built the Zami Masjid, Mecca Masjid and Gagan Mahal;
  • He was called a Sufi;
  • Secularism was resumed during his reign;
  • He appointed Acharya Vaman Pandit;
Ibrahim Adil Shah II (1580 - 1637)
  • He was called ‘Jagat Guru’ ;
  • He built Andha Mahal, Mihtar Mahal, Malika Jahan Masjid;
  • During his reign Farista compiled ‘Tarik-i-Farista’ ;
  • He wrote a book called ‘Nauras Nama’ ;
  • He built his capital ‘Nauraspur’ ;
  • ″ Hens gave grants to ‘Pandharpur’ ;
  • During his reign Akka-Madina flourished;
  • He built Gol Gumbaz, it was his Mausoleum (Makbara) ;
  • He also built Asar Mahal;
  • He was the greatest king of the dynasty;
Ali Adil Shah II (1656 - 1672)
  • He was a patron of Urdu literature;
  • During his reign a lot of Urdu Deccani Scholars flourished - Mia Nursali, Miahansi, Mirzan Marsiyan;
  • Adil Shah wrote 2 books:
    • Gulshan-i-Ishq;
    • Ali Nama;
  • Nursali composed 2 books
    • Kasida and
    • Diwan-i-Gazal;
  • Mia Hansi wrote the story of Yusuf and Zulaikha and a book called Gazals;
Sikandar Adil Shah (1672 - 1686)
  • In September 1686, he surrendered to Aurangzeb;

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