CBSE-2022 Syllabus for Biotechnology Classes XII

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Theory 3 Hours and 70 Marks and 180 Peroids

Unit V: Protein and Gene Manipulation Marks 40 (100 Periods)

Chapter I: Recombinant DNA Technology 15 Marks (40 Periods)


  • Tool of rDNATechnology
  • Making rDNA
  • Introduction of Recombinant DNA into Host Cells
  • Identification of Recombinants
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
  • Hybridization Techniques
  • DNA Library
  • DNA Sequencing
  • Site-directed Mutagenesis

Chapter II: Protein Structure and Engineering 15 Marks (35 Periods)

Introduction to the World of Proteins

  • 3 − D Shape of Proteins
  • Structure-Function Relationship in Proteins
  • Purification of Proteins
  • Characterization of Proteins
  • Protein Based Products
  • Designing Proteins (Protein Engineering)

Chapter III: Genomics and Bioinformatics 10 Marks (25 Periods)


  • Genome Sequencing Projects
  • Gene Prediction and Counting
  • Genome Similarity, SNPs and Comparative Genomics
  • Functional Genomics
  • Proteomics
  • History of Bioinformatics
  • Sequences and Nomenclature
  • Information Sources
  • Analysis using Bioinformatics Tools

Unit VI: Cell Culture and Genetic Manipulation 30 Marks (80 Periods)

Chapter I: Microbial Culture and Applications 10 Marks (26 Periods)


  • Microbial Culture Techniques
  • Measurement and Kinetics of Microbial Growth
  • Scale up of Microbial Process
  • Isolation of Microbial Products
  • Strain isolation and Improvement
  • Applications of Microbial Culture Technology
  • Biosafety Issues in Microbial Technology

Chapter II: Plant Cell Culture and Applications 10 Marks (27 Periods)


  • Cell and Tissue Culture Techniques
  • Applications of Cell and Tissue Culture
  • Gene Transfer Methods in Plants
  • Transgenic Plants with Beneficial Traits
  • Biosafety in Plant Genetic Engineering

Chapter III: Animal Cell Culture and Applications 10 Marks (27 Periods)


  • Animal Cell Culture Techniques
  • Characterisation of Cell Lines
  • Methods of Gene Delivery into Cells
  • Scale-up of Animal Culture Process
  • Applications of Animal Cell Culture
  • Stem Cell Technology
  • Tissue Engineering


Note: Every student will be required to do the following experiments during the academic session

List of Experiments

  1. Isolation of bacterial plasmid DNA and its detection by gel electrophoresis
  2. Restriction digestion of plasmid DNA and its analysis by gel electrophoresis
  3. Bacterial transformation using any plasmid
  4. Data retreival and data base search using internet site NCBI
  5. Download a DNA and protein sequence from internet, analyse it and comment on it.
  6. Cell viability assay
  7. Determination of blood groups
  8. Estimation of DNA
  9. Ion-exchange chromatography for proteins.
  10. Reading of DNA sequencing gel to arrive at the sequence
  11. Estimation of blood glucose by enzymatic method (GOD/POD)
  12. Project work

Scheme of Evaluation Time is 3 Hours and 30 Marks

The scheme of evaluation at the end of the session will be as under:

  • Two experiments: 6 + 6 (only one computer based practical)
  • Practical record: 04
  • Viva on Practicals: 04
  • Project work:
    1. Write up: 05
    2. Viva on project: 05
    3. Total 30

Recommended Books

  1. A Text Book of Biotechnology-Class XI: Published by CBSE, New Delhi
  2. A Laboratory Manual of Biotechnology-Class XI: Published by CBSE, New Delhi
  3. A Text Book of Biotechnology-Class XII: Published by CBSE, New Delhi
  4. A Laboratory Manual of Biotechnology-Class XII: Published by CBSE, New Delhi