CBSE-2018 Practical and Theory Syllabus and Course Structure for Chemistry Classes XI
Higher Secondary is the most crucial stage of school education because at this juncture specialized discipline based, content-oriented courses are introduced. Students reach this stage after 10 years of general education and opt for Chemistry with a purpose of pursuing their career in basic sciences or professional courses like medicine, engineering, technology and study courses in applied areas of science and technology at tertiary level. Therefore, there is a need to provide learners with sufficient conceptual background of Chemistry, which will make them competent to meet the challenges of academic and professional courses after the senior secondary stage.
The new and updated curriculum is based on disciplinary approach with rigour depth taking care that the syllabus is not heavy and at the same time it is comparable to the international level. The knowledge related to the subject of Chemistry has undergone tremendous changes during the past one decade. Many new areas like synthetic materials, bio-molecules, natural resources, industrial chemistry are coming in a big way and deserve to be an integral part of chemistry syllabus at senior secondary stage. At international level, new formulations and nomenclature of elements and compounds, symbols and units of physical quantities floated by scientific bodies like IUPAC and CGPM are of immense importance and need to be incorporated in the updated syllabus. The revised syllabus takes care of all these aspects. Greater emphasis has been laid on use of new nomenclature, symbols and formulations, teaching of fundamental concepts, application of concepts in chemistry to industry/technology, logical sequencing of units, removal of obsolete content and repetition etc.
The broad objectives of teaching Chemistry at Senior Secondary Stage are to help the learners:
- to promote understanding of basic facts and concepts in chemistry while retaining the excitement of chemistry.
- to make students capable of studying chemistry in academic and professional courses (such as medicine, engineering, technology) at tertiary level.
- to expose the students to various emerging new areas of chemistry and apprise them with their relevance in their future studies and their application in various spheres of chemical sciences and technology.
- to equip students to face various challenges related to health, nutrition, environment, population weather, industries and agriculture.
- to develop problem solving skills in students.
- to expose the students to different processes used in industries and their technological applications.
- to apprise students with interface of chemistry with other disciplines of science such as physics, biology, geology, engineering etc.
- to acquaint students with different aspects of chemistry used in daily life.
- to develop an interest in students to study chemistry as a discipline.
Course Structure of XI (Theory)
One Paper in 3 Hours and 70 Marks
Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry
Structure of Atom
Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties
Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure
States of Matter: Gases and Liquids
Some p-Block Elements
Organic Chemistry: Some basic Principles and Techniques
Unit I: Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry (Periods 14)
- General Introduction: Importance and scope of chemistry.
- Nature of matter, laws of chemical combination, Dalton's atomic theory: Concept of elements, atoms and molecules.
- Atomic and molecular masses, mole concept and molar mass, percentage composition, empirical and molecular formula, chemical reactions, stoichiometry and calculations based on stoichiometry.
Unit II: Structure of Atom (Periods 16)
Discovery of Electron, Proton and Neutron, atomic number, isotopes and isobars. Thomson's model and its limitations. Rutherford's model and its limitations, Bohr's model and its limitations, concept of shells and subshells, dual nature of matter and light, de Broglie's relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle, concept of orbitals, quantum numbers, shapes of s, p and d orbitals, rules for filling electrons in orbitals-Aufbau principle, Pauli's exclusion principle and Hund's rule, electronic configuration of atoms, stability of half filled and completely filled orbitals.
Unit III: Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties (Periods 8)
Significance of classification, brief history of the development of periodic table, modern periodic law and the present form of periodic table, periodic trends in properties of elements-atomic radii, ionic radii, inert gas radii Ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, electronegativity, valency. Nomenclature of elements with atomic number greater than 100.
Unit IV: Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure (Periods 16)
Valence electrons, ionic bond, covalent bond; bond parameters, Lewis structure, polar character of covalent bond, covalent character of ionic bond, valence bond theory, resonance, geometry of covalent molecules, VSEPR theory, concept of hybridization, involving s, p and d orbitals and shapes of some simple molecules, molecular orbital theory of homonuclear diatomic molecules (qualitative idea only), hydrogen bond.
Unit v: States of Matter: Gases and Liquids (Periods14)
Three states of matter, intermolecular interactions, types of bonding, melting and boiling points, role of gas laws in elucidating the concept of the molecule, Boyle's law, Charles law, Gay Lussac's law, Avogadro's law, ideal behaviour, empirical derivation of gas equation, Avogadro's number, ideal gas equation. Deviation from ideal behaviour, liquefaction of gases, critical temperature, kinetic energy and molecular speeds (elementary idea) Liquid State-vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension (qualitative idea only, no mathematical derivations)
Unit VI: Chemical Thermodynamics (Periods 16)
- Concepts of System and types of systems, surroundings, work, heat, energy, extensive and intensive properties, state functions.
- First law of thermodynamics-internal energy and enthalpy, heat capacity and specific heat, measurement of? U and? H, Hess's law of constant heat summation, enthalpy of bond dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation, phase transition, ionization, solution and dilution.
- Second saw of Thermodynamics (brief introduction)
- Introduction of entropy as a state function, Gibbs energy change for spontaneous and non-spontaneous processes, criteria for equilibrium.
- Third law of thermodynamics (brief introduction).
Unit VII: Equilibrium (Period 16)
Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes, dynamic nature of equilibrium, law of mass action, equilibrium constant, factors affecting equilibrium-Le Chatelier's principle, ionic equilibrium-ionization of acids and bases, strong and weak electrolytes, degree of ionization, ionization of poly basic acids, acid strength, concept of pH, Henderson Equation, hydrolysis of salts (elementary idea), buffer solution, solubility product, common ion effect (with illustrative examples).
Unit VIII: Redox Reactions (Period 6)
Concept of oxidation and reduction, redox reactions, oxidation number, balancing redox reactions, in terms of loss and gain of electrons and change in oxidation number, applications of redox reactions
Unit IX: Hydrogen (Period 8)
Position of hydrogen in periodic table, occurrence, isotopes, preparation, properties and uses of hydrogen, hydrides-ionic covalent and interstitial; physical and chemical properties of water, heavy water, hydrogen peroxide-preparation, reactions and structure and use; hydrogen as a fuel.
Unit X: S-Block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metals) (Periods 12)
Group 1 and Group 2 Elements
General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, anomalous properties of the first element of each group, diagonal relationship, trends in the variation of properties (such as ionization enthalpy, atomic and ionic radii), trends in chemical reactivity with oxygen, water, hydrogen and halogens, uses.
Preparation and Properties of Some Important Compounds:
- Sodium carbonate, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide and Sodium hydrogencarbonate, biological importance of sodium and potassium.
- Calcium oxide and Calcium carbonate and their industrial uses, biological importance of Magnesium and Calcium.
Unit XI: Some P-Block Elements (Periods 14)
General Introduction to P-Block Elements
- Group 13 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous properties of first element of the group, Boron-physical and chemical properties, some important compounds, borax, boric acid, boron hydrides, Aluminium: Reactions with acids and alkalies, uses.
- Group 14 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous behaviour of first elements Carbon-catenation, allotropic forms, physical and chemical properties; uses of some important compounds: Oxides.
- Important compounds of silicon and a few uses: Silicon tetrachloride, silicones, silicates and Zeolites, their uses.
Unit XII: Organic Chemistry-Some Basic Principles and Technique (Periods 16)
- General introduction, methods of purification, qualitative and quantitative analysis, classification and IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds.
- Electronic displacements in a covalent bond: Inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance and hyper conjugation.
- Homolytic and heterolytic fission of a covalent bond: Free radicals, carbocations, carbanions, electrophiles and nucleophiles, types of organic reactions.
Unit XIII: Hydrocarbons (Periods 16)
Classification of Hydrocarbons Aliphatic Hydrocarbons:
- Alkanes-Nomenclature, isomerism, conformation (ethane only), physical properties, chemical reactions including free radical mechanism of halogenation, combustion and pyrolysis.
- Alkenes-Nomenclature, structure of double bond (ethene), geometrical isomerism, physical properties, methods of preparation, chemical reactions: Addition of hydrogen, halogen, water, hydrogen halides (Markownikov's addition and peroxide effect), ozonolysis, oxidation, mechanism of electrophilic addition.
- Alkynes-Nomenclature, structure of triple bond (ethyne), physical properties, methods of preparation, chemical reactions: Acidic character of alkynes, addition reaction of-hydrogen, halogens, hydrogen halides and water.
- Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Introduction, IUPAC nomenclature, benzene: Resonance, aromaticity, chemical properties: Mechanism of electrophilic substitution. Nitration, sulphonation, halogenation, Friedel Craft's alkylation and acylation, directive influence of functional group in monosubstituted benzene. Carcinogenicity and toxicity.
Unit XIV: Environmental Chemistry (Periods 8)
Environmental pollution-air, water and soil pollution, chemical reactions in atmosphere, smog, major atmospheric pollutants, acid rain, ozone and its reactions, effects of depletion of ozone layer, greenhouse effect and global warming-pollution due to industrial wastes, green chemistry as an alternative tool for reducing pollution, strategies for control of environment pollution.
Evaluation Scheme for Examination
Content Based Experiment
Class Record, Project Viva
Practicals Syllabus of XI (11th) and Total Periods is 60
Micro-chemical methods are available for several of the practical experiments. Wherever possible such techniques should be used: Basic Laboratory Techniques (Periods 2)
- Cutting glass tube and glass rod
- Bending a glass tube
- Drawing out a glass jet
- Boring a cork
Characterization and Purification of Chemical Substances (Periods 6)
- Determination of melting point of an organic compound.
- Determination of boiling point of an organic compound.
- Crystallization of impure sample of anyone of the following: Alum, copper sulphate, Benzoic acid.
Experiments Based on pH (Periods 6)
- Any one of the following experiments:
- Determination of pH of some solutions obtained from fruit juices, soulution of known and varied concentrations of acids, bases and salts using pH paper or universal indicator.
- Comparing the pH of solutions of strong and weak acids of same concentration.
- Study the pH change in the titration of a strong base using universal indicator.
- Study the pH change by common-ion in case of weak acids and weak bases.
Chemical Equilibrium (Periods 4)
One of the following experiments:
- Study the shift in equilibrium between ferric ions and thiocyanate ions by increasing/decreasing the concentration of either ions.
- Study the shift in equilibrium between [Co (H O) ]2 + and chloride ions by changing the concentration of either of the ions.
Quantitative Estimation (Periods 12)
- Using a chemical balance.
- Preparation of standard solution of oxalic acid.
- Determination of strength of a given solution of sodium hydroxide by titrating it against standard solution of oxalic acid.
- Preparation of standard solution of sodium carbonate.
- Determination of strength of a given solution of hydrochloric acid by titrating it against standard sodium carbonate solution.
Qualitative Analysis (Periods 16)
Determination of One Anion and One Cation in a Given Salt
Cations-Pb2 +, Cu2 +, As3 + A13 +, Fe3 + Mn2 +, Ni2 +, Zn2 +, Co2 + Ca2 +, Sr2 +, Ba2 +, Mg2 +.
Anions-CO 2-, S2-, SO 2-, SO 2-, NO-, NO-, C1-, Br, I-, PO34-, C O 2-, CH COO-3
(Note: Insoluble salts excluded)
Detection Of-Nitrogen, Sulphur, Chlorine in Organic Compounds
PROJECT (Periods 10)
Scientific investigations involving laboratory teNstiHng + and collecting information from other sources.
A Few suggested Projects
- Checking the bacterial contamination in drinking water by testing sulphide ion.
- Study of the methods of purification of water.
- Testing the hardness, presence of iron, fluoride, chloride etc. Depending upon the regional variation in drinking water and study of causes of presence of these ions above permissible limit (if any).
- Investigation of the foaming capacity of different washing soaps and the effect of addition of sodium carbonate on it.
- Study the acidity of different samples of tea leaves.
- Determination of the rate of evaporation of different liquids.
- Study the effect of acids and bases on the tensile strength of fibers.
- Study of acidity of fruit and vegetable juices.
Note: Any other investigatory project, which involves about 10 periods of work, can be chosen with the approval of the teacher.