CBSE-2022 Syllabus for Philosophy Classes XI and XII

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Philosophy, a theoretical enterprise with practical applications, aims at understanding the nature and meaning of life and Reality. It is both a view of reality and a way of life. It is considered to be the mother of all branches of knowledge. The nature of Philosophy is that in it no answer is left unquestioned. It attempts to understand and explain the fundamental axioms and presuppositions which are taken for granted by all branches of knowledge. The + 2 syllabus is designed to give the students a glimpse of the nature of problems and the way they are dealt with in its various branches-Logic, Ethics, Classical Indian Philosophy and Western Philosophy.

Class XI (Theory) 3 Hours and 100 Marks

Unitwise Weightage

Scientific Method

Methods of Natural and Social Sciences10 Marks
Observation and Experiment10 Marks
Science and Hypothesis10 Marks
Mill՚s Methods of Experimental Inquiry10 Marks
Nyaya Theory of Knowledge (General Survey)10 Marks


The nature and subject matter of logic06 Marks
Terms and Propositions Relation between Propositions15 Marks
Categorical Syllogism10 Marks
Elements of Symbolic Logic06 Marks
Buddhist Formal Logic13 Marks

Unit 1: Methods of Natural and Social Sciences-20 Pds

Value of Science. Nature and aim of Scientific Methods: Difference between Scientific induction, and Induction by simple enumeration. Difference between methods of Natural Sciences and Social Sciences.

Unit 2: Observation and Experiment-20 Pds

Their Differences; fallacies of observation.

Unit 3: Science and Hypothesis-25 Pds

The place of hypothesis in scientific method. Formulation of relevant hypothesis. Formal conditions of valid hypothesis. Hypothesis and crucial experiments.

Unit 4: Mill՚s Methods of Experimental Inquiry 25 Pds

The method of agreement; The method of difference.

The joint method of agreement and difference; The method of concomitant variation.

The method of residue

Unit 5: Nyaya Theory of Knowledge-30 Pds

General Survey-Prama, Pramana, Pramanya, Pratyaksa, Anumana, Upamana, Sabda


Unit 6: The nature and scope of logic-14 Pds.

What is Logic? Use and application of Logic. Difference between Truth and Validity

Unit 7: Terms and Propositions-30 Pds

Definition of Term; Denotation and Connotation of Terms. Definition of Proposition and traditional classification of Propositions. Distribution of Terms.

Relation between Propositions-12 Pds

Traditional Square of Propositions

Unit 8: Categorical Syllogism-24 Pds

Its definition: Rules of valid syllogism and Fallacies.

Unit 9: Elements of Symbolic Logic 14 Pds

Value of using symbols in Logic Basic Truth-tables.

Unit 10: Buddhist Formal Logic: Theory of Anuman-26 Pds

Suggested reference:


  1. Bhola Nath Roy-Text-book of Inductive Logic
  2. Bhola Nath Roy-Text-book of Deductive Logic
  3. I. M. Copi-Introduction to Logic.
  4. S. C. Chatterjee-Nyaya Theory of Knowledge
  5. C.
  6. D. Bijalrav-Indian Theory of Knowledge
  7. S. R. Bhatt and Anu Mehrotra-Buddhist Epistemology

Class XII (Theory) 3 Hours and 100 Marks

Indian Philosophy-50 Marks

Unit 1 Nature and Schools of Indian Philosophy-10 Marks

Some basic issues: Rta; Karma; Four Purusarthas: Dharma, Artha, Kama and Moksa

Unit 2 Philosophy of Bhagavad Gita-10 Marks

Karma Yoga (Anasakta Karma/Niskama Karma) .

Svadhrama; Lokasamgraha.

Unit 3 Buddhism and Jainism-10 Marks

Four Noble Truths and Eight-fold path; Theoery of Dependent Origination.

Anekantavada and Syadvada

Unit 4 Vaisesika and Samkhya-Yoga

  1. Vaisesika Theory of Padartha
  2. Samkhya Theory of Purusa and Prakrti
  3. Yoga-The Eight-fold path.

Unit 5 Vedanta-Traditional and Modern

  1. Sankara՚s concept of Brahman and Maya
  2. Vivekananda՚s Practical Vedanta


Unit 6 Retionalism (Descartes, Spinoza, Leibniz) -10 Marks

Unit 7 Empiricism (Locke, Berkeley, Hume) -10 Marks

Unit 8 Kant՚s Critical Philosophy-10 Marks

Unit 9 The Causal Principle

Aristotle՚s of theory of four-fold causation; Cause-effect relationship; Theories of Causation: Entailment, Regularity and Succession. 10 Marks

Applied Ethics-10 Marks

Unit 10

  1. Environmental Ethics: Study of Physical, Mental and Spiritual Environments.
  2. Professional Ethics: Legal, Medical, Media, Business.
  3. Philosophy of Education-10 Marks

Suggested References

In English

  1. Chattarjee & Datta-Introduction to Indian Philosophy
  2. M Hiriyana-Essentials of Indian Philosophy
  3. CD Sharma-Critical Survey of Indian Philosophy

In Hindi

  1. Chattarjee & Dutta-Bharatiya Darsana-Eka Parichaya
  2. CD. Sharma-Bhartiya Darsana Ka Samiksatmaka Sarveksana
  3. DD. Bijalwana-Bhartiya Darsana

In English

  1. Will Durant-Story of Philosophy
  2. Thilly & Wood-History of Western Philosophy
  3. Y Masih-Critical History of Western Philosophy

In Hindi

  1. BN. Singh-Paschatya Darsana
  2. CD. Sharma-Paschatya Darsana
  3. Y Masih-Paschatya Darsana Ka Samiksatmaka Itihasa

In English

SR. Bhatt: Applied Philosophy, Value Theory and Business Ethics