CBSE-2022 Syllabus for Polotical Science Classes XI and XII

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At the senior secondary level students who opt Political Science are given an opportunity to get introduced to the diverse concerns of a Political Scientist. At this level there is a need to enable students to engage with political processes that surround them and provide them with an understanding of the historical context that has shaped the present. The different courses introduce the students to the various streams of the discipline of political science: Political theory, Indian politics and international politics. Concerns of the other two streams-comparative politics and public administration-are accommodated at different places in these courses. In introducing these streams, special care has been taken not to burden the students with the current jargon of the discipline. The basic idea here is to lay the foundations for a serious engagement with the discipline at the undergraduation stage.


  • Enable students to understand historical processes and circumstances in which the Constitution was drafted.
  • Provide opportunity for students to be familiar with the diverse visions that guided the makers of the Indian Constitution.
  • Enable students to identify the certain key features of the Constitution and compare these to other constitutions in the world.
  • Analyse the ways in which the provisions of the Constitution have worked in real political life.

Political Theory

  • Develop the skills for logical reasoning and abstraction
  • Inculcate attention to and respect for viewpoints other than one՚s own
  • Introduce students to the different political thinkers in relation to a concept and in everyday social life
  • Enable students to meaningfully participate in a concern of current political life that surrounds them
  • Encourage the students to analyse any unexamined prejudices that one may have inherited.

Contemporary World Politics

  • Enable the students to expand their horizons beyond India and make sense of the political map of contemporary world.
  • Familiarise the students with some of the key political events and processes in the post cold war era.
  • Equip students to be conscious of the way in which global events and processes shape our everyday lives.
  • Strengthen their capacity for political analysis by thinking of contemporary developments in a historical perspective.

Politics in India After Independence

  • Enable students to be familiar with some of the key political events and figures in the post-independence period.
  • Develop skills of political analysis through events and processes of recent history.
  • Develop their capacity to link macro processes with micro situations and their own life.
  • Encourage the students to take a historical perspective of making sense of the contemporary India.

Class XI ( 11th )

One paper 3 Hours and 100 Marks

Part a: Indian Constitution at Work

Constitution: Why & How?12 Periods10 Marks
Rights in the Indian Constitution12 Periods10 Marks
Election and Representation10 Periods10 Marks
Executive10 Periods10 Marks
Legislature10 Periods10 Marks
Judiciary10 Periods10 Marks
Federalism10 Periods10 Marks
Local Governments10 Periods10 Marks
Constitution as a living document10 Periods10 Marks
The Philosophy of the constitution10 Periods10 Marks
Total104 Periods50 Marks

Part B: Political Theory

Political Theory: An Introduction10 Periods10 Marks
Freedom10 Periods10 Marks
Equality10 Periods10 Marks
Social Justice10 Periods10 Marks
Rights10 Periods10 Marks
Citizenship10 Periods10 Marks
Nationalism10 Periods10 Marks
Secularism10 Periods10 Marks
Peace10 Periods10 Marks
Development10 Periods10 Marks
total102 Periods50 Marks

Course Content:

Part a: Indian Constitution at Work

The Constitution: Why and How? -12 Periods

Why do we need a constitution? The authority of a Constitution

Rights in the Indian Constitution-12 Periods

The Importance of Rights, Fundamental Rights in the Indian Constitution, Directive Principles of State Policy, Relationship between Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles

Election and Representation-10 Periods

Elections and Democracy, Election System in India, Reservation of Constituencies, Free and Fair Elections, Electoral Reforms

Executive-10 Periods

What is an Executive? Different Types of Executive. Parliamentary Executive in India, Prime Ministers and Council of Ministers. Permanent Executive: Bureaucracy.

Legislature-10 Periods

Why do we need a Parliament? Two Houses of Parliament. Functions and Power of the Parliament, Legistative functions, control over executive. Parliamentary committees. Self-regulation.

Judiciary-10 Periods

Why do we need an Independent Judiciary? Structure of the Judiciary, Judicial Activism, Judiciary and Rights, Judiciary and Parliament

Federalism-10 Periods

What is Federalism? Federalism in the Indian Constitution, Federalism with a strong Central Government, conflicts in India՚s federal system, Special Provisions.

Local Governments-10 Periods

Why do we need Local Governments? Growth of Local Government in India, 73rd and 74th Amendments, implementation of 73rd and 74th Amendments

Constitution as a Living Document-10 Periods

Are Constitutions static? The procedure to amend the Constitution. Why have there been so many amendments? Basic Structure and Evolution of the Constitution. Constitution as a Living Document

The Philosophy of the Constitution-10 Periods

What is meant by Philosophy of the Constitution? The Political philosophy of our Constitution, ProceduralAchievements, Criticisms

Part B: Political Theory

Political Theory: An Introduction-10 Periods

What is Politics? What do we study in Political Theory? Putting Political Theory to practice. Why should we study Politial Theory?

Freedom-10 Periods

The Ideal of Freedom. What is Freedom? Why do we need constraints? Harm principle. Negative and Positive Liberty

Equality-10 Periods

Significance of Equality. What is Equality? Various dimensions of Equality. How can we promote Equality?

Social Justice-12 Periods

What is Justice? Just Distribution. Justice as fairness. Pursuing Social Justice

Rights-10 Periods

What are Rights? Where do Rights come from? Legal Rights and the State. Kinds of Rights. Rights and Responsibilities

Citizenship-10 Periods

What is citizenship? Citizen and Nation, Universal Citizenship, Global Citizenship

Nationalism-10 Periods

Nations and Nationalism, National Self-determination, Nationalism and Pluralism

Secularism-10 Periods

What is Secularism? What is Secular State? The Western and the Indian approaches to Secularism. Criticisms and Rationale of Indian Secularism.

Peace-10 Periods

What is Peace? Can violence ever promote peace? Peace and the State. Different Approaches to the pursuit of peace. Contemporary challenges to peace.

Development-10 Periods

What is development? Criticism of the dominant. Development Model. Alternative conceptions of development.

Class XII

One Paper 3 Hours 100 Marks

Part a: Contemporary World-Politics

Cold War Era14 Periods-The End of bipolarity, 12 Periods-US Hegemony in World Politics14 Marks
Alternative centres of Power10 Periods16 Marks
Contemporary South Asia12 Periods-International Organizations10 Marks

Part B: Politics in India Since Independence

Era of One-Party Dominance12 Periods16 Marks
Challenges of nation-building12 Periods-Politics of Planned Development, 10 Periods-India՚s External relations6 Marks
Challenges to the Congress System12 Periods12 Marks
Crisis of the Democratic order12 Periods-Regional aspirations16 Marks
Rise of Popular Movements10 Periods-Recent Developments in indian Politics50 Marks

Course Contents Part a: Contemporary World Politics

Cold War Era-14 Periods

Emergence of two power blocs after the second world war. Arenas of the cold war. Challenges to Bipolarity: NonAligned Movement, quest for new international economic order. India and the cold war.

The End of Bipolarity-12 Periods

New entities in world politics: Russia, Balkan states and CentralAsian states, Introduction of democratic politics and capitalism in post-communist regimes. India՚s relations with Russia and other post-communist countries.

US Hegemony in World Politics-12 Periods

Growth of unilateralism: Afghanistan, first Gulf War, response to and attack on Iraq. Dominance and challenge to the US in economy and ideology. India՚s renegotiation of its relationship with the USA.

Alternative Centres of Power-10 Periods

Rise of China as an economic power in post-Mao era, creation and expansion of European Union, ASEAN. India՚s changing relations with China.

Contemporary South Asia in the Post-Cold War Era-12 Periods

Democratisation and its reversals in Pakistan and Nepal. Ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka, Impact of economic globalization on the region. Conflicts and efforts for peace in South Asia. India՚s relations with its neighbours.

International Organizations-12 Periods

Restructuring and the future of the UN. India՚s position in the restructured UN. Rise of new international actors: New international economic organisations, NGOs. How democratic and accountable are the new institutions of global governance?

Security in Contemporary World-10 Periods

Traditional concerns of security and politics of disarmament. Non-traditional or human security: Global poverty, health and education. Issues of human rights and migration.

Environment and Natural Resources-10 Periods

Environment movement and evolution of global environmental norms. Conflicts over traditional and common property resources. Rights of indigenous people. India՚s stand in global environmental debates.


Economic, cultural and political manifestations. Debates on the nature of consequences of globalisation. Anti-globalisation movements. India as an arena of globalization and struggle against it.

Part B: Politics in India Since Independence

Challanges of Nation-Building-12 Periods

Nehru՚s approach to nation-building: Legacy of partition: Challenge of ‘refugee’ resettlement, the Kashmir problem. Organisation and reorganization of states; Political conflicts over language.

Era of One-Party Dominance-12 Periods

First three general elections, nature of Congress dominance at the national level, uneven dominance at the state level, coalitional nature of Congress. Major opposition parties.

Politics of Planned Development-10

Five year plans, expansion of state sector and the rise of new economic interests. Famine and suspension of five year plans. Green revolution and its political fallouts.

India՚s External Relations-12 Periods

Nehru՚s foreign policy. Sino-Indian war of 1962, Indo-Pak war of 1965 and 1971. India՚s nuclear programme and shifting alliances in world politics.

Challenges to the Congress System-12 Periods

Political succession after Nehru. Non-Congressism and electoral upset of 1967, Congress split and reconstitution, Congress victory in 1971 elections, politics of ‘garibi hatao’

Crisis of the Democratic Order-12 Periods

Search for ‘committed’ bureaucracy and judiciary. Navnirman movement in Gujarat and the Bihar movement. Emergency: Context, constitutional and extra-constitutional dimensions, resistance to emergency. 1977 elections and the formation of Janata Party. Rise of civil liberties organisations.

Rise of New Social Movements-10 Periods

FarmerS ′ movements, Women ′ s movement, Environment and Development-affected people ′ s movements. Implementation of Mandal Commission report and its aftermath.

Regional Aspirations-10 Periods

Rise of regional parties. Punjab crisis and the anti-Sikh riots of 1984. The Kashmir situation. Challenges and responses in the North East.

Recent Developments in Indian Politics: 12 Periods

Participatory upsurge in 1990s. Rise of the JD and the BJP. Increasing role of regional parties and coalition politics. UF and NDA governments. Elections 2004 and UPA government.

Recommended Text Books

  1. Indian Constitution at Work, Class XI, Published by NCERT
  2. Political Theory, Class XI, Published by NCERT
  3. Contemporary World Politics, Class XII, Published by NCERT
  4. Politics in India Since Independence, Class XII, Published by NCERT

Note: The above textbooks are also available in Hindi and Urdu versions.