NCERT CBsE Board Class 10 History Summary - Chapter 1: The Rise of Nationalism in Europe (Expected|Most Important|Common Topics for 2021 Exam) (Download PDF)

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Concept of Nation State - common identity and shared history developed & was result of struggle, action of leaders and common people. French Revolution - 1st expression of nationalism in 1789.

Summary for NCERT Class 10 History in 45 Minutes - Important Topics
  • Transfer from monarchy to body of French citizens - people constitute the nation and shape the destiny
  • The ideas of la patrie (the fatherland) and le citoyen (the citizen) emphasized the notion of a united community enjoying equal rights
  • New French tricolor flag to replace former royal standard
  • Estates General was elected and renamed as National Assembly
  • Centralized administrative system with uniform laws for citizens within territory
  • Abolish internal custom duties and dues
  • Formulate uniform system of weights and measures
  • French became a common language and regional dialects were discouraged
  • Aim to liberate people of Europe from despotism
  • Establishment of Jacobin clubs - French army moved into Holland, Belgium, Switzerland and Italy in 1970s
  • Developments under Napoleon - Civil Code of 1804 (Napoleonic Code) did away with privileges based on birth, established equality and secured right to property. He abolished feudal system and freed peasants from serfdom. He removed guild restriction and improved transportation.
Map of Developments under Napoleon
  • Unification of Germany - Bismarck - constitution, freedom of press and freedom of association
  • Unification of Italy - Mazzini, later Garibaldi
  • Mazzini formed Young Italy in Marseilles & Young Europe in Berne (1833) .
  • Developments in Balkan state - ethnic diversity

Habsburg Empire (Austria-Hungary) - Many Different Regions and Peoples

It includes:

  • Alpine regions - Tyrol, Austria and the Sudetenland
  • Bohemia - German-speaking
  • Italian-speaking provinces of Lombardy and Venetia
  • Hungary - half population spoke Magyar & others regional dialects
  • Polish speaking people in Galicia

Liberal Nationalism - liberalism (Latin - liber means free) means freedom for individual and equality of all before law. It stood as end of autocracy and clerical privileges & stressed inviolability of private property

Universal suffrage - France - initially only property owned man had right to vote. Under Jacobins, right was given to all adult males. Under Napoleon, righted were limited and reduced for women. Later opposition movements began.

In 1834, a customs union or zollverein was formed at the initiative of Prussia and joined by most of the German states. The union abolished tariff barriers and reduced the number of currencies from more than 30 to 2. I

Conservatism after 1815 - Conservatism is a philosophy that stresses on tradition, customs and prefers gradual change

  • They believed modernization can strengthen traditional institutions like monarchy making state more effective
  • Modern army, efficient bureaucracy, dynamic economy, abolition of feudalism and serfdom could strengthen autocratic monarchies of Europe
  • In 1815, Britain, Russia, Prussia and Austria who collectively defeated Napoleon met at Vienna under Congress hosted by Austrian Chancellor Duke Metternich to draw Treaty of Vienna. Idea was to undo changes that happened under Napoleonic wars & keep check on expansion of French territory

Age of Revolutions: 1830 - 1848

  • Revolutionaries were educated middle class elite, professors, school teachers, clerks and commercial middle classes.
  • France upheaval in 1830 - Bourbon kings restored to power were overthrown by liberal Louis Phillippe
  • Metternich said ‘When France sneezes, the rest of Europe catches cold.’
  • July Revolution sparked uprising in Brussels that led to Belgium breaking away from UK of Netherlands.
  • Greek war of independence -Treaty of Constantinople of 1832 recognized Greece as an independent nation.

Imagination & National Feeling

  • Nationalism came across by idea of culture (poetry, story and music) along with wars and territorial expansion.
  • Romanticism - criticized glorification of reason and science & focused on emotions, intuition and mystical feelings. Idea was to share collective heritage, common cultural past and basis of nation.
  • Paintings
  • Johann Gottfried Herder, German - discover German culture among common man (das volk) - by folk songs and dances spirit of nation (volksgeist) was popularized
  • Collection of vernacular language and folklore to carry message to illiterate audiences
  • Operas and music
  • Folk tales

Hunger, Hardship & Popular Revolt

  • 1830s - years of economic hardships in Europe

1848: Revolution of Liberals

  • Brought abdication of monarch and republic based on universal male suffrage
  • Germany, Italy, Poland, the Austro-Hungarian Empire - men and women of the liberal middle classes combined their demands for constitutionalism with national unification - constitution, freedom of press and freedom of association
  • In Germany, German National Assembly was formed on 18th May, 1848 with 831 elected representatives. They drafted a constitution for German nations to be headed by monarchy. Friedrich Wilhelm IV, King of Prussia, rejected it and joined other monarchs to oppose the elected assembly.
  • Women formed political associations, founded newspapers and took part in political meetings but were denied suffrage rights.
  • Louise Otto-Peters (1819 - 95) was a political activist who founded a women՚s journal and subsequently a feminist political association (awareness of women rights and interests)
  • Serfdom and bonded labor were abolished both in Habsburg dominions and in Russia. Habsburg rulers granted more autonomy to the Hungarians in 1867.

Making of Germany & Italy

  • Liberal initiative to nation-building in Germany was repressed by monarchy and military & supported by the large landowners (called Junkers) of Prussia.
  • Prussia took leadership for national unification with Otto von Bismarck as the architect. 3 wars over 7 years with Austria, Denmark and France ended in Prussian victory & unification.
  • In January 1871, the Prussian king, William I, was proclaimed German Emperor in a ceremony in Hall of Mirrors, at Versailles
  • New state emphasized modernization of currency, banking, legal and judicial systems in Germany

Italy Unified

  • Italy had scattered dynasties and Habsburg Empire. In mid-19th century - it was divided in 7 states of which Sardinia-Piedmont was ruled by Italian princely house.
  • Garibaldi was sailor. In 1860, Garibaldi led the Expedition of the Thousand to South Italy. Volunteers joined and were known as Red Shirts. In 1867, Garibaldi led an army of volunteers to Rome to fight the last obstacle to the unification of Italy, the Papal States where a French garrison was stationed. I

Case of Britain

  • Nation state formation was not sudden but a long drawn out process. Prior to 18th century there were ethnic groups like English, Welsh, Scot or Irish with their own culture and traditions. As it grew in wealth and power, influence extended to other nations.
  • English parliament seized power from the monarchy in 1688
  • Act of Union (1707) between England and Scotland resulted in the formation of ‘United Kingdom of Great Britain’ - England was able to impose its influence on Scotland
  • British parliament was dominated by English members and Scotland՚s culture was suppressed. Catholics from Scotland suffered repression. Scottish Highlanders were forbidden to speak their Gaelic language or wear their national dress, and large numbers were forcibly driven out of their homeland.
  • Ireland was divided between Catholics and Protestants. English helped Protestants to establish power over Catholic nation. Catholics were suppressed. After failed revolt led by Wolfe Tone and his United Irishmen (1798) , Ireland was forcibly incorporated into UK in 1801.
  • Symbols of the New Britain: British flag (Union Jack) , the national anthem (God Save Our Noble King) , the English language were actively promoted
  • Nations were portrayed as females. Female figure became an allegory (abstract idea expressed through person or things) of the nation.
  • In France she was christened Marianne.
  • Germania became the allegory of the German nation.
  • Balkans - geographical and ethnic variation included Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro - people called as Slavs. Majority of Balkans was under Ottoman Empire. Spread of romantic nationalism & disintegration of Ottoman Empire made this region very explosive.

- Published/Last Modified on: January 9, 2020

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