NCERT CBsE Board Class 10 History Summary - Chapter 3: Nationalism in India (Expected|Most Important|Common Topics for 2021 Exam) (Download PDF)

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Gandhi՚s return from South Africa, 1916 - Champaran, Bihar against oppressive plantation, 1917 - Kheda, Gujarat - crop failure and plague - relaxation on revenue collection. 1918 - Organize Ahmedabad textile mill workers.

Summary for NCERT Class 10 History in 45 Minutes - Important Topics
  • Rowlatt Act (1919) - Nationwide protest against it. Passed by Imperial Legislative Council despite united opposition. It gave the government enormous powers to repress political activities, and allowed detention of political prisoners without trial for two years.
  • Jallianwalla Bagh Incidence
  • Khilafat issue - harsh treaty on Khalifa (Ottoman emperor) .
  • Surrender of titles, boycott of civil services, army, police, court, legislative council, schools and foreign goods
  • Non-Cooperation-Khilafat Movement began in Jan. 1921 - call of Swaraj

Khadi Concept

  • Awadh (Baba Ramchandra - sanyasi who earlier had been to Fiji as indentured labourer) - against talukdars and landlords who were demanding high rents, begar (forced laborer without payment)
  • Gudem Hills of Andhra Pradesh - militant guerilla movement started in 1920s - led by Alluri Sitaram Raju
  • Inland Emigration Act of 1859, plantation workers were not permitted to leave the tea gardens without permission
  • After Chauri Chaura incident in Gorakhpur - Gandhi called off Non Cooperation movement
  • CR Das & Motilal Nehru formed Swaraj Party - to argue for return to council politics

Factors Affecting Indian Politics Late 1920s

  • Effect of worldwide economic depression, agricultural prices fell from 1926 & collapsed after 1930. Peasants found hard to sell harvest and pay revenue
  • Tory government in Britain constituted Statutory Commission under Sir John Simon - functioning of constitutional system & no single Indian in the commission - in 1928 was greeted with “Go Back Simon”
  • 1929 - Bhagat Singh and Batukeswar Dutta threw a bomb in the Legislative Assembly & also attempt to blow the train in which Irwin was travelling - idea was “Inquilab Zindabad”
  • 31 Jan 1930 - Letter to Irwin with 11 demands - bringing all classes under united campaign - demand to abolish salt tax (monopoly over salt production by Britisher was most oppressive face of British rule)
  • If demands are not fulfilled, Congress would launch Civil Disobedience movement
  • Salt March - with 78 volunteers for 240 miles from Sabarmati to Dandi - 24 days and walked 10 miles a day
  • Not only refuse cooperation but also break laws
  • Movement called off and Gandhi entered Irwin pact on March 1931
  • Untouchables or Dalits or oppressed were not moved by abstract ideas of swaraj
  • BR Ambedkar - organized dalits into Depressed Classes Association in 1930 - clashed with Gandhi at 2nd Round Table Conference for a separate electorate for dalits.
  • Muslims felt alienated and from mid-1920s Congress came to be openly associated with Hindus like Hindu Mahasabha - led to worsened relations between Hindus and Muslims - provoked communal riots
  • Muslim League and Congress tried to renegotiate an alliance and in 1927 it appeared that such unity could be forged - differences were over representation in future assemblies that were to be elected
  • Jinnah (leader of Muslim League) - willing to give up the demand for separate electorates, if Muslims were assured reserved seats in the Central Assembly and representation in proportion to population in the Muslim-dominated provinces (Bengal and Punjab) .
  • Hope to resolve issue disappeared when MR Jayakar of Hindu Mahasabha opposed to compromise

Nationalism

  • Nation symbolized as figure or image - identity of India as Bharat Mata (image 1st by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay - he later wrote Vande Mataram & novel Anandmath)
  • During Swadeshi movement in Bengal, a tricolour flag (red, green and yellow) was designed.
  • By 1921, Gandhi had designed the Swaraj flag.
  • Reinterpretation of history
  • Idea was to resolve difference and ensure demand of one group did not alienate another

- Published/Last Modified on: January 9, 2020

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