NCERT CBsE Board Class 10 History Summary - Chapter 5: The Age of Industrialization (Expected|Most Important|Common Topics for 2021 Exam) (Download PDF)

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Before factories there was proto-industrialization, Richard Arkwright created the cotton mill, Most dynamic industries were cotton and metals. Cotton was leading industrial sector till 1840s. Iron & steel demand increased with expansion of railways from 1840s in Britain and 1860s in colonies. By 1873, Britain exported iron of Pound 77 billion which was double that of cotton.

Summary for NCERT Class 10 History in 45 Minutes - Important Topics
  • New industries could not displace traditional industries - by end of 19th century - less than 20 % in advanced industrial sectors. Textile was dynamic sector and majority produced in domestic units
  • Pace of change in the ‘traditional’ industries was not set by steam-powered cotton or metal industries. Small innovations were basis of growth in non-mechanized sectors

Steam Engine: James Watt Improved Steam Engine Produced by Newcomen

  • In Victorian Britain, upper classes - aristocrats and bourgeoisie - preferred things produced by hand.
  • Life of Workers - Some stayed in Night Refuges that were set up by private individuals; others went to the Casual Wards maintained by the Poor Law authorities

Seasonality in Work

  • Surat on the Gujarat coast connected India to the Gulf and Red Sea Ports; Masulipatam on the Coromandel coast and Hoogly in Bengal had trade links with Southeast Asian ports
  • New ports like Bombay and Calcutta grew - it was indicator of strengthening colonial powers
  • Once East India Company established political power it could assert monopoly right to trade - develop management to eliminate competition, control cost and ensure regular supply of cotton and silk
  • It appointed a paid servant called gomastha to supervise weavers
  • By end of 18th century there was no import of cotton in India, rose to 31 % by 1850 and 50 % by 1870s in terms of value of imports
  • In Bengal, Dwarkanath Tagore made his fortune in the China
  • In Bombay, Parsis like Dinshaw Petit and Jamsetjee Nusserwanjee Tata
  • Indian merchants were barred from trading with Europe in manufactured goods, and had to export mostly raw materials and food grains - raw cotton, opium, wheat and indigo - required by the British
  • Number seeking work were always more than jobs available. Entry to mill was restricted and they employed jobber (old and trusted worker - became person with authority) to get new recruits
  • After 1906, exports to China declined was they started their own mills. In India, it registered a shift from yarn to cloth
  • Weavers used looms with fly shuttle (device for weaving by ropes and pullies) - led to higher productivity per worker, higher production and reduced labor demand - mainly in Travancore, Madras, Mysore, Cochin & Bengal
  • Indian weavers resisted colonial control, demanded tariff protection, created their own space and extended market for produce - swadeshi goods

- Published/Last Modified on: January 9, 2020

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