NCERT CBSE Board Class 10 History Summary - Chapter 5: the Age of Industrialization (Expected|Most Important|Common Topics for 2020 Exam) (Download PDF)

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Before factories there was proto-industrialization, Richard Arkwright created the cotton mill, Most dynamic industries were cotton and metals. Cotton was leading industrial sector till 1840s. Iron & steel demand increased with expansion of railways from 1840s in Britain and 1860s in colonies. By 1873, Britain exported iron of Pound 77 billion which was double that of cotton.

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Summary for NCERT Class 10 History in 45 Minutes - Important Topics

Dr. Manishika Jain discusses Summary for NCERT Class 10 History - in 45 hours

  • New industries could not displace traditional industries – by end of 19th century – less than 20 % in advanced industrial sectors. Textile was dynamic sector and majority produced in domestic units

  • Pace of change in the ‘traditional’ industries was not set by steam-powered cotton or metal industries. Small innovations were basis of growth in non-mechanized sectors

Steam Engine: James Watt Improved Steam Engine Produced by Newcomen

  • In Victorian Britain, upper classes – aristocrats and bourgeoisie – preferred things produced by hand.
  • Life of Workers - Some stayed in Night Refuges that were set up by private individuals; others went to the Casual Wards maintained by the Poor Law authorities

Seasonality in Work

  • Surat on the Gujarat coast connected India to the Gulf and Red Sea Ports; Masulipatam on the Coromandel coast and Hoogly in Bengal had trade links with Southeast Asian ports
  • New ports like Bombay and Calcutta grew – it was indicator of strengthening colonial powers
  • Once East India Company established political power it could assert monopoly right to trade – develop management to eliminate competition, control cost and ensure regular supply of cotton and silk
  • It appointed a paid servant called gomastha to supervise weavers
  • By end of 18th century there was no import of cotton in India, rose to 31 % by 1850 and 50 % by 1870s in terms of value of imports
  • In Bengal, Dwarkanath Tagore made his fortune in the China
  • In Bombay, Parsis like Dinshaw Petit and Jamsetjee Nusserwanjee Tata
  • Indian merchants were barred from trading with Europe in manufactured goods, and had to export mostly raw materials and food grains – raw cotton, opium, wheat and indigo – required by the British
  • Number seeking work were always more than jobs available. Entry to mill was restricted and they employed jobber (old and trusted worker – became person with authority) to get new recruits
  • After 1906, exports to China declined was they started their own mills. In India, it registered a shift from yarn to cloth
  • Weavers used looms with fly shuttle (device for weaving by ropes and pullies) – led to higher productivity per worker, higher production and reduced labor demand – mainly in Travancore, Madras, Mysore, Cochin & Bengal
  • Indian weavers resisted colonial control, demanded tariff protection, created their own space and extended market for produce – swadeshi goods

- Published/Last Modified on: January 9, 2020

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