NCERT CBsE Board Class 10 History Summary - Chapter 6: Work, Life and Leisure (Expected|Most Important|Common Topics for 2021 Exam) (Download PDF)

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In 1880, Durgacharan Ray wrote a novel, Debganer Martye Aagaman (The Gods Visit Earth) , Cities like Nippur and Mohenjodaro were larger in scale than other settlements. Cites were often the centres of political power, administrative network, trade and industry, religious institutions, and intellectual activity

Summary for NCERT Class 10 History in 45 Minutes - Important Topics
  • London - In 1750,1 of 9 people of England and Wales lived in London. Colossal city with 6.75 lakh population which shot up to 4 million in 1880

Crime Grew

  • Women lost job with technology
  • Children in low paid work
  • Only after passage of the Compulsory Elementary Education Act in 1870 & factory acts beginning from 1902, that children were kept out of industrial work.
  • Temperance movement (middle class led social reforms) developed to fight against evils of drinking and drunkenness on streets
  • Town planning in London - Social revolution
  • Demands for new lungs for city - bridge between city and countryside by Green Belts around London
  • Ebenezer Howard developed idea of Garden City

Following Howard՚s Ideas Raymond Unwin and Barry Parker Designed the Garden City of New Earswick

  • City encouraged individualism (independent action of individual) & freedom from collective values of smaller rural communities. Public space became male dominated and domestic was female dominated
  • Music halls & cinemas
  • Libraries, art galleries and museums
  • Sea beaches
  • Taverns - night stay - place to exchange ideas and news
  • Haussmanisation of Paris under Napoleon III


  • Early 20th century - 11 % Indians were in cities
  • Large proportion of urban dwellers were in 3 Presidency cities (Bombay, Bengal and Madras) which were multi-functional with major ports, warehouses, educational institutions.
  • Till 20th century - Bombay dominated maritime trade. Located at junction of two railways (encouraged higher migration)
  • 1888 - 89 - Kutch famine drove people to Bombay
  • Flood of migrants created panic and plague epidemic spread in 1898 where 30,000 people were sent back in 1902
  • Bombay was crowded
  • Parsis, Muslims and upper caste traders had spacious bungalows while 70 % lived in chawls
  • Town planning in Bombay was due to fear of plague
  • Rent Act was passed to keep rents reasonable
  • Bombay developed by reclamation projects
  • Bombay as “mayapuri” or city of dreams
  • Natural features were flattened for demand of housing
  • Refuse and waste product polluted air and water and noise pollution became an issue
  • Use of coal in homes created serious problems

Kolkata - Smoke Abatement Acts of 1847 and 1853, as they were called, did not always work to clear the air

  • High amount of ash in Indian coal was a problem
  • Singapore planning - Under Lee Kuan Yew it became independent nation in 1965 - housing and development program on every inch of land - void decks՚ or empty floors were provided in all buildings for community activities & reduced crime

- Published/Last Modified on: January 9, 2020

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