NCERT CBsE Board Class 10 History Summary - Chapter 7: Print Culture and the Modern World (Expected|Most Important|Common Topics for 2021 Exam) (Download PDF)

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Print culture started in China, Started with civil service exams in China, Spread to common people, Rise of industrialization and individualism, Handprinting in Japan by Buddhist missionaries from China in 768 - 770 AD.

Summary for NCERT Class 10 History in 45 Minutes - Important Topics
  • Kitagawa Utamaro - art form ukiyo ( ‘pictures of the floating world’ ) or depiction of ordinary human experiences
  • Paper made possible manuscripts written by scribes (skilled handwriters)
  • Luxury editions were handwritten on velum (parchment made from animal skin) for aristocratic and rich monastic libraries

Gutenburg & Printing Press

  • Gutenberg was son of merchant who grew on agricultural estate seeing olive and wine presses
  • Movement from oral to written culture
  • Circulation of ideas
  • In 1517, religious reformer Martin Luther wrote Ninety Five Theses criticizing many of the practices and rituals of the Roman Catholic Church - posted on church door in Wittenberg - it was immediately reproduced and led to division within Church and beginning of Protestant Reformation.
  • 16th century - Menocchio, a miller in Italy could read books -reinterpreted Bible and formulated a view of God and Creation that enraged the Roman Catholic Church.
  • Almanacs, calendars, folktales; chapbooks (pocket sized books) sold for penny in England;
  • In France, were “Biliotheque Bleue” , which were low-priced small books printed on poor quality paper, and bound in cheap blue covers

Conditions Created in French Revolution by Print Culture

  1. Books meant for spreading progress and enlightenment - change and liberate society from despotism and intellect could rule and bring in public opinion
  2. Popularized ideas of enlightenment thinkers - argued for rule of reason and judgment to be done on rationality; authority of Church was attacked
  3. Created culture of dialogue and debate - reevaluation of norms, values and institutions - new ideas of social revolution
  4. By 1780s literature mocked royal culture and criticized morality - cartoons suggested that monarchy was absorbed in sensual pleasures and common man suffered hardships
  5. Spread of ideas - reinterpretation of things in their own way - it did not shape the mind but opened possibility to think differently

Key Ideas and Inventions

  • Women novelists - Jane Austen, the Bronte sisters, George Elio - defined new type of women as person with will, strength, determination and power to think
  • Late 19th century - offset print was developed - could print 6 colors at a time
  • 20th century - electrically operated presses accelerated printing operations
  • Methods of feeding paper improved, the quality of plates became better, automatic paper reels and photoelectric controls of the color register were introduced
  • 18th century - Gita Govinda by Jayadev - palm-leaf handwritten manuscript in accordion format
  • 14th century poet - Hafiz collected works are known as Diwan.
  • By 1710, Dutch Protestant missionaries had printed 32 Tamil texts
  • Late 17th Century - English East India Company began to import press
  • From 1780, James Augustus Hickey began to edit the Bengal Gazette, a weekly magazine
  • Rammohan Roy published Sambad Kaumudi from 1821
  • Hindu orthodoxy commissioned the Samachar Chandrika to oppose his opinions of Raja Rammohan Roy
  • 1822: Two Persian newspapers were published, Jam-i-Jahan Nama and Shamsul Akhbar
  • 1822: Gujarati newspaper, Bombay Samachar started
  • In north India - Ulama (legal scholars of Islam) were worried about collapse of Muslim dynasty
  • 1867 - Deoband Seminary published thousands of fatwas
  • From the 1880s, Naval Kishore Press at Lucknow and the Shri Venkateshwar Press in Bombay published numerous religious texts in vernaculars
  • 19th century - In East Bengal Rashsundari Debi - Amar Jiban
  • 1860s in Bengal - Kailashbashini Debi wrote books highlighting the experiences of women
  • 1880s - In Maharashtra, Tarabai Shinde and Pandita Ramabai wrote with passionate anger about miserable lives of upper-caste Hindu women, especially widows
  • 1870s - Serious beginning for Hindi printing - education, remarriage, national movement
  • Ram Chaddha published fast-selling Istri Dharm Vichar to teach women how to be obedient wives.
  • Central Calcutta area Battala
  • Jyotiba Phule, Maratha pioneer of ‘low caste’ protest movements, wrote about injustices of the caste system in his Gulamgiri (1871)
  • In 20th century, B. R. Ambedkar in Maharashtra and E. V. Ramaswamy Naicker (Periyar) in Madras
  • Kashibaba, a Kanpur millworker, wrote and published Chhote Aur Bade Ka Sawal in 1938
  • The poems of another Kanpur millworker, who wrote under the name of Sudarshan Chakr between 1935 and 1955, were brought together and published in a collection called Sacchi Kavitayan.
  • Thomas Macaulay (liberal colonial official) formulated new rules that restored the earlier freedoms
  • Vernacular press became nationalist, government brought stringent measures
  • 1878 - Vernacular Press Act was passed modelled on Irish Press Laws
  • When Punjab revolutionaries were deported in 1907, Balgangadhar Tilak wrote with great sympathy about them in his Kesari. This led to his imprisonment in 1908, provoking in turn widespread protests all over India.

- Published/Last Modified on: January 9, 2020

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