DTE Expected Topics Pesticides Management Bill 2020 YouTube Lecture Handouts

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DTE Expected Topics

Expected Topics

  • Vulnerable Tribal Groups like the Great Andamanese (in Strait Island) , Onges (in Little Andaman) , Jarawas (in South Andaman) and Shompens (in the Greater Nicobar Islands) – COVID Impact
  • GPT-3: new artificial intelligence (AI) -based language generating software
  • Etosha Pan: Namibia
  • GPT-3 is capable of producing excellent syntax. It boasts a wide range of vocabulary, owing to an large knowledge base from which it can generate thematically relevant sentences – still lacks thinking (Another passage suggests that to bring a table through a doorway that is too small you should cut the door in half)
  • Etosha pan is hollow in the ground, wherein water may collect or in which a deposit of salt remains after water has evaporated. The 120-kilometre-long dry lakebed and its surroundings are protected as Etosha National Park, Namibia՚s second-largest wildlife park.
  • The pan is mostly dry, but after a heavy rain, it acquires a thin layer of water that is heavily salted by the mineral deposits on the surface. Series of wet and dry cycles.
Expected Topics
  • The red and orange areas indicated regions with extremely high carbon monoxide concentrations of greater than 350 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) . Yellow and green areas showed more normal, background concentrations, with amounts between 30 and 50 ppbv, according to NASA.
  • August Complex fires — located northwest of Willows, California - accounted for a quarter million of the 1.5 million acres of land burned
  • 20 major fires in Aug & Sept 2020
  • Amazon Rainforests - significant amount of dust from North Africa՚s Sahara Desert is deposited every year on the Amazon. The dust contains phosphorus and other important plant nutrients that increase Amazonian soil fertility. This subsequently leads to better rainfall in north Africa
Komodo Dragon
  • Komodo dragon, the world՚s largest lizard, could become extinct in the next few decades due to climate change unless measures are taken to change the status quo
  • South Africa՚s springhares are better at hopping than Australia՚s kangaroos, rat-kangaroos and wallabies - to assess the muscle-tendon design of the hind limbs of springhares and compare it against those of 16 species of Australian animals that hop

Expected Topics

  • Kalinga cricket frog disc in 2018 in Eastern Ghats (Odisha and Andhra Pradesh) - morphological phenotypic plasticity (MPP)
  • Fejervarya/Minervarya group in Western Ghats
  • 2008 has been declared the year of the potato
  • Congo Food crisis - Ituri, Tanganyika, Kasai Central and Kasai provinces
  • Indian scientists have reported a first-of-its-kind discovery of morphological phenotypic plasticity (MPP) in the Kalinga cricket frog. MPP is the ability of an organism to show drastic morphological (physical features) variations in response to natural environmental variations or stimuli.
  • Potato - The potato՚s centre of origin is in and around Peru in South America, Almost 5,000 potato varieties are cultivated worldwide; 3,000 of these in the Andes mountains alone. Then there are are 200 wild varieties. Genomic approach: instead of only counting the chromosome sets, it requires identification of the smaller components of chromosomes called ‘bases’ . They also propose cultivated potatoes be reclassified into four species. India՚s Central Potato Research Station at Kufri, Himachal Pradesh
  • Congo – food crisis - Burkina Faso had also been suffering from an acute food crisis; northern Nigeria (73 per cent increase) , Somalia (67 per cent increase) and Sudan (64 per cent increase) .

Expected Topics

  • Pesticides Management Bill 2020
  • Aichi biodiversity
  • Japan to commercialize hydrogen energy transport by 2025

PMB, 2020 would not allow the manufacture and export of pesticides not registered for use in India even if these are approved in other countries. The Insecticides Act, 1968 currently governs the registration, manufacturing, export, sale, and use of pesticides in India.

  • Aichi Biodiversity Target 1 (Creating awareness about the value of biodiversity)
  • Aichi Biodiversity Target 11 (17 per cent of terrestrial and inland water areas and 10 per cent of coastal and marine areas, to be effectively and equitably managed)
  • Aichi Biodiversity Target 16 (Access to genetic resources and the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from their utilization)
  • Aichi Biodiversity Target 17 (Creation, adoption and implementation of an effective, participatory and updated national biodiversity strategy and action plan)
  • Aichi Biodiversity Target 19 (Improvement and dissemination of knowledge, the science base, and technologies relating to biodiversity) .

Japan to commercialize hydrogen energy transport by 2025 - Japan signed the first project of this kind with the Australian government in 2014. The aim was to demonstrate the viability of gasifying brown coal in the Latrobe Valley, Australia, to generate hydrogen, transport it by sea to the Kobe port in Japan, and use it in a cogeneration plant to generate electricity and heat. Brown coal, or young coal, has water content as high as 50 - 60 per cent. It catches fire easily on drying and is risky to handle. The resource has, therefore, not been exploited much. However, the low cost of brown coal makes gasification technology one of the most affordable means of energy production

Expected Topics

  • Red Fox replacing Blue Fox
  • Importance of dead coral reefs
  • Malaria in Climate Change
  • Red fox, one of the most widespread carnivores in the world, is spreading in Norway՚s alpine areas at the cost of the Arctic or blue fox - roads were also littered with garbage and refuse left by tourists as well as road kills due to accidents of animals with cars. Red fox, being bigger than the blue, tended to dominate it in these areas.
  • ‘Dead’ coral reefs supported ‘cryptic’ animals — hidden sea creatures, including fishes, snails, tiny crabs and worms — who hide under this rubble to save themselves from predation. Three mass bleaching events in 1998,2010 and 2016 impacted five major coral reef regions in Andaman, Nicobar, Lakshadweep, Gulf of Mannar and Gulf of Kutch, all under the Indian Ocean itself. Similarly, a recent oil spill in Mauritius — that leaked more than 1,000 tonnes of fuel oil — can be responsible for the devastation of coral reefs around the island as well.
  • Malaria is a climate-sensitive vector-borne disease responsible for an estimated 435,000 deaths from 219 million malaria cases worldwide in 2017. At least 92 per cent of these deaths were reported in Africa. Flowing water in large river channels did not provide suitable larval habitat for African vector mosquitoes, associated smaller water bodies in adjacent bankside and floodplain areas could make for ideal larval breeding ground.
  • Higher melting rates - Melting from Antarctica pushed sea levels up by 7.2 millimetres, while Greenland accounted for 10.6 mm by NASA & European Space Agency. Reason was thermal expansion, involving the volume of seawater expanding once it gets warmer

Expected Topics

  • Indonesia – Oil Palm Plantations
  • Metallolophia taleensis
  • SharkCam for Basking Shark
  • Indonesia saw a huge increase in oil palm plantations — from two mega hectares (Mha) in 2000 to 8.6 Mha in 201
  • Indonesia passed a law in 2010, protecting more than 69 Mha of forests, mangroves, and peat lands from conversion into palm oil plantations
  • It also allowed oil palm expansion in forests already licensed or degraded by logging.
  • The Forest Moratorium currently protects just 10 per cent of the areas identified as vulnerable to oil palm expansion by 2025, while 83 per cent of vulnerable natural areas are left unprotected.
  • New moth species discovered in Arunachal Pradesh - The researchers have named it Metallolophia taleensis after the Tale wildlife sanctuary
  • The basking shark is the second-largest fish in the world after the whale shark and can grow up to 33 feet long.
  • The fish usually travel to the seas around the UK after migrating from West Africa. The ‘SharkCam’ (robot camera) was deployed off the west coast of Scotland and followed three sharks near the coasts of Coll and Tiree.
  • The robot-recorded behaviour that suggested the sharks came to the UK to breed rather than to feed
Robot-Recorded Behaviour
Vaccination and Trials

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