Akbar, Akbar Nama, Ala-Ud-DinKhilji, Albert Einstein and Alexander Cunningham

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  • Akbar succeeded his father Humayun at the age of 14. Bairam Khan, a distinguished General, became his regent. Bairam Khan defeated Hemu at the Second Battle of Panipat (1556) and secured the throne of Akbar. He followed a policy of conciliation with the Rajputs and the Hindus.
  • He constructed “Ibadat Khana” , or the House of Worship at Fatehpur Sikri. With the help of Abul Fazal, Akbar founded a religion called the Din-i-Ilahi or the Divine Faith. He built the beautiful city of Fatehpur Sikri in red sandstone near Agra. He abolished the hated Jazia and pilgrim tax and allowed full religious freedom to all his subjects. He is therefore called a National Monarch. The Mansabdari System was the main essence of his Government. Akbar՚s tomb is at Sikandra near Agra. Historians say that it was Akbar the real founder of the Mughal Empire in India.

Akbar Nama

In which the chief events of Akbar՚s reign are recorded.


Ala-ud-dinKhilji was the founder of Khilji dynasty. Brought almost the whole of India under his rule. He was a great administrator. He strictly forbade drinking. He introduced a system of price control and rationing.

Albert Einstein

A world-famous scientist of German Swiss origin who settled down in the U. S. A. after he was driven out by the Nazis from Germany in 1933. He is the author of the Theory of Relativity.

Alexander Cunningham

(1814 - 1893 A. D.) He was the father of Indian Archaeology and first Director-General of the Indian Archaeology Survey 1879 - 1885. Through his efforts a beginning was made in translating and dating ancient inscriptions and in describing archaeological sites.

Alexander Fleming

He is the discoverer of penicillin. He received in 1945 Nobel Prize for Medicine.

Alexander, the Great

  • Alexander, son of Philip, King of Macedonia, North of Greece. He was one of the greatest conquerors of the world. He was born in 356 B. C. The famous philosopher, Aristotle was his tutor, Alexander made his object to conquer the world. In 326 B. C. he invaded India.
  • He was the first European invader on the Indian soil. In the Battle with Pours, Alexander was victorious. Alexander lost his famous horse, Bucephalecus in the Battle. His army felt homesick and insisted to return. Alexander died in 323 B. C. in Babylonia. The result of Alexander invasion promoted the political unification of India.


Almeida was the first Portuguese Governor. He strengthened the Portuguese sea power.

Alfonso Albuquerque

  • Alfonso Albuquerque considered being the ablest Portuguese Viceroy in India. His policy was to destroy the Muslim traders and to establish a Portuguese Empire in the East. He conquered Goa from the Sultan of Bijapur and made it his Capital.
  • He founded many Portuguese settlements all along the West Coast of India e. g. Diu, Daman, Bassein, Bombay, etc. He was the founder of the Portuguese Empire in the East. The Portuguese power lasted a century and a half and then it began to decline. Goa, Daman and Diu have been taken over by the Indian Government.

Alan Octavian Hume (A. O. Hume)

A retired English civilian founded the Indian National Congress in 1885 with the help of educated Indians and a few Englishmen. In the beginning, it was an association to discuss matters concerning the welfare of the Indians. Gradually it became a political body in opposition to the British Government.

Ambedkar B. R

Dr. Ambedkar is a well-known Indian Jurist Statesman, social reformer and scheduled castes leader. He was the Chairman of the Constitution Drafting Body and played a significant role in drafting the Indian Constitution after India attained independence. He was posthumously awarded 1990 Bharat Ratna.

Amir Khusro

Amir Khusro called the “Parrot of India” patronised by Alaudin Khilji. His literary works are Laila Majnu, Tuglaq Nama etc. Amir Khusro flourished during the reign of Alaudin Khilji.

Amitabh Bachchan

The film star, who is making waves with Star Plus “Kaun Banega Crorepati” unveiled his life like wax figure in Madame Tussaud՚s wax Museum in London on December 20,2000.

Annadurai C. N

Born in Kancheepuram, founded DMK party. He was the first Chief Minister of DMK party in Tamil Nadu. A great writer and orator in Tamil and English, he is affectionately called “Anna” .


He was supporter of Julius Caesar and fought Brutus after the death of Caesar. He also fell in love with Cleopatra.

Arundhati Roy

This Indian writer has bagged the prestigious Booker Prize (1997) for her very first novel “The God of Small Things” . Arundhati Roy is the first resident Indian recipient of the literary honour.

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