CLAT Common Law Admission Test Solved Paper 2011 – English, Aptitude Part 2

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8. The author asserts that basing anti-poverty measures on the avowed connections between poverty and violence has certain apparent benefits because

(a) poverty is like religious exploitation in terms of the potential violent consequences

(b) it leads to allocation of more resources on anti-poverty policies

(c) the widespread concern about war and violence provides a rationale for poverty-removal that appeals to the ‘self-interest’ of persons

(d) otherwise, there would not have been the tendency to justify anti-poverty policies on the ground that they prevent political turmoil


9. ‘Economic reductionism’ in this passage means

(a) Neglecting the economic connection between poverty and violence

(b) Excessive accent on poverty and inequality

(c) Emphasizing on the linkage between violence, poverty, and economic equality

(d) The view that every conflict is caused by underlying economic tensions

Ans: (c)

10. “A sense of encroachment, degradation and humiliation can be even easier … Mobilize for rebellion and revolt.”

Select the most appropriate word out of the four options for filling the blank space in the aforesaid sentence

(a) for

(b) as

(c) into

(d) to

Ans: (d)

Directions (Q. Nos. 11 to 20) Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions following that.

  • In 1953, a Bombay economist named AD Shroff began a Forum of Free Enterprise, whose ideas on economic development were at odds with those then influentially articulated by the Planning Commission of the Government of India. Shroff complained against the ‘indifference, if not discouragement’ with which the state treated entrepreneurs.
  • At the same time as Shroff, but independently of him, a journalist named Philip Spratt was writing a series of essays in favour of free enterprise. Spratt was a Cambridge community who was sent by the party in 1920s to foment revolution in the subcontinent. Detected in the act, he spent many years in an Indian jail. The books he read in the prison, and his marriage to an Indian woman afterwards, inspired a steady move rightwards. By the 1950s, he was editing a pro-American weekly from Bengaluru called MysIndia. There he inveighed against the economic policies of the government of India. These, he said, treated the entrepreneur ‘as a criminal who has dared to use his brains independently of the state to create wealth and give employment.’ The state՚s chief planner, PC mahala Nobis, had surrounded himself with Western leftists and Soviet academicians, who reinforced his belief in ‘rigid control by the government over all activities.’ The result, said Spratt, would be ‘the smothering of free enterprise, a famine of consumer goods, and the typing down of millions of workers to soul-deadening techniques.’
  • The voices of men like Spratt and Shroff were drowned in the chorus of popular support for a model of heavy industrialization funded and directed by the governments. The 1950s were certainly not propitious times for free marketers in India. But from time to time their ideas were revived. After the rupee was devalued in 1966, there were some moves towards freeing the trade regime, and hopes that the licensing system-would also be liberalized. However, after Indira Gandhi spilt the Congress Party in 1969, her government took its ‘left turn’ , nationalizing a fresh range of industries and returning to economic autarky.

11. Which of the following statements can most reasonably be inferred from the information available in the passage?

(a) PC Mahala Nobis believed in empowering private entrepreneurs and promoting free market

(b) Phillip Spratt preferred plans that would create economic conditions favorable for a forward march by the private enterprise

(c) Restrictions on free markets enriched large Indian companies

(d) Philip Spratt opposed the devaluation of rupee in 1966

Ans: (b)

12. Which of the following statement is least likely to be inferred from the passage?

(a) Acceptance of AD Shroff՚s plans in the official circles smothered free enterprise in India

(b) The views of the Forum of Free Enterprise ran against the conception of development then prevalent among the policy makers

(c) AD Shroff believed that state should actively support the private sector

(d) Philip Spratt had been educated in Cambridge

Ans: (d)

13. Select the statement that best capture the central purpose of this passage.

(a) Highlight that even though there were advocates for free-market and private enterprise in the early years of independent India, they were crowded out by others who supported a dominant role for state over private enterprise

(b) Explain the politics behind Indira Gandhi՚s decision to nationalize the banks

(c) Demonstrate with the help of statistics how the preference of policy makers for Soviet-style economic policies prevented India՚s economic growth

(d) Establish that devaluation of rupee in 1966 was vindicated by subsequent experience

Ans: (a)

14. Philip Spratt came to India because he

(a) Fell in love with an Indian woman

(b) Wanted to protest the economic policies of the Indian government

(c) Was offered the editorship of MysIndia

(d) Had been instructed to work towards the goal of inciting a revolution in India

Ans: (d)

15. The author avers that AD Shroff՚s ideas were at odds with the views of Planning Commission because

(a) AD Shroff was in favour of rigid governmental control over all economic activities

(b) Shroff had opposed government՚s decision to devalue Indian rupee

(c) The hostility of the government to private entrepreneurs was complained against by AD Shroff

(d) Shroff had been critical of the influence of Soviet academicians over India՚s economic policy

Ans: (c)