Theories of Motivation: Maslow՚s Need Hierarchy Theory and Herzberg՚s Two Factor Theory

Get unlimited access to the best preparation resource for competitive exams : get questions, notes, tests, video lectures and more- for all subjects of your exam.

Theories of Motivation
Theories of Motivation
Motivation Theories

Maslow՚s Need Hierarchy Theory

Maslow՚s Need Hierarchy Theory

This theory is given by “Abraham Harold Maslow” .

The theory focuses on human needs, which repeat from one level to higher level.

Physiological Need

Basic and primary needs of human which once satisfied no longer motivate. Example hunger, sleep, thirst.

Safety Need

It refer to the need for security and protection. Safety need dominates as soon as physiological needs are satisfied. Example Health, security.

Social Need

Social need emerge from basic urge of human to associate and belong with others.

Esteem Need

self-esteem as well as recognition from others. Esteem can come in the form of achievement, status, prestige.

Self-Actualization Need

It relates to becoming more than what we are, and they can come from peace, knowledge, and self-fulfilment.

Herzberg՚s Two Factor Theory

Herzberg՚s Two Factor Theory

This theory is also called Motivational hygiene theory or two factor theory.

It has two factors:

Hygiene/Maintenance Factors

These factors are essential for existence of motivation at workplace. These factors describe a job environment example Pay, company policy.

Motivational Factors

These factors yield positive satisfaction. They motivate the employees for a superior performance. For example, recognition, sense of achievement, and meaningfulness of the work.

McClelland՚s Theory of Need

McClelland՚s Theory of Need

This theory is given by David C McClelland, and this theory is also known as three needs theory.

David advocated achievement motivation theory, which consists of

Need for Achievement

It is the desire to excel and to achieve in relation to a set of standards. Monetary rewards do not motivate high achievers.

Need for Affiliation

It is the desire to form close personal relationship and people belonging to such groups wants to be liked.

Need for Power

It is the desire to influence or control others.

Expectancy Theory

Expectancy Theory
  • This theory is given by Victor Vroom in 1964.
  • The theory aims to explain how people choose from the actions that are available.
  • The theory suggest that individuals have different set of goals and there is a positive correlation between efforts and performance.
  • Favourable performance leads to desired reward.


1. Human motives are developed by?

a) Abraham Maslow

b) Mc Gregor

c) Taylor

d) David C McClelland

2. Herzberg՚s hygiene factors does not include? a) Administrative policies

b) Recognition

c) Fringe benefits

d) Job security

3. Expectancy theory can be expressed as?

a) Motivation = Expectancy + Valency

b) Motivation = (Expectancy + Valency) x Instrumentality

c) Motivation = Expectancy x Valency x Instrumentality

d) None of the above

4. Which is not the need as proposed by Abraham Maslow? a) Esteem

b) Control

c) Self-actualization

d) Social

5. Who developed the ‘Two factor theory’ of motivation? a) Maslow

b) Lawless

c) Herzberg

d) Hackman