United Nation: Introduction, History, Preamble and Principles

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Introduction

  • The term ‘United Nation’ was first use by Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1st January 1942 during Second World War. When the representatives of 26 Nations pledged to fight against the axis powers.

  • Post First World War the League Of Nation was established to maintain peace and security but majorly fails.

  • The Charter was signed by the representatives of the 50 countries.

  • Charter had been ratified by China, France, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the United States and by a majority of other signatories.

History

The Declaration of St. James’ Palace: 12Th June 1941

  • During world War 2, the representatives of Great Britain, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and the Union of South Africa and of the exiled governments of Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Greece, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Yugoslavia and France, met at the ancient St. James’ Palace and signed a declaration in London.

  • “The only true basis of enduring peace is the willing cooperation of free peoples in a world in which, relieved of the menace of aggression, all may enjoy economic and social security; It is our intention to work together, and with other free peoples, both in war and peace, to this end.”

  • Ten days later Hitler launched an attack on Russia.

14Th August,1941: The Atlantic Charter

  • Two months after the London Declaration came the next step to a world organization, meeting between President Roosevelt and Prime Minister Churchill on the coast of Newfoundland.

  • This document was not a treaty between the two powers. Nor was it a final and formal expression of peace aims.

  • It was only an affirmation, as the document declared, “of certain common principles in the national policies of their respective countries on which they based their hopes for a better future for the world.”

  • Abandonment of force and war and establishing a wider and permanent system.

1St Jan,1942: Declaration of the United Nations

  • With Japanese attack on Pearl harbour on 7th Dec 1941, USA enters the war broadening the dimension.

  • The Allied powers were staggered by Japan’s successes.

  • In 1945 in Washington DC, 26 states signed the declaration.

  • Main principles were:

  • -promote respect for human rights on an international basis.

  • -the term UNITED NATIONS was used for the first time by Roosevelt to express unity against the axis powers.

30Th October 1943, Moscow Declaration

  • The Declaration laid to the foundation for the new world body to replace the league of Nation.

  • By 1943 the Allied nations were committed to outright victory and, thereafter, to an attempt to create a world in which “men in all lands may live out their lives in freedom from fear and want.”

  • US, UK, Russia, China came together to establish sovereign equality to all peace-loving states and General security.

1944-1945: Dumbarton Oaks and Yalta

  • The Dumbarton Oaks Conference was the first important step taken to carry out the need for a post war international organization to succeed the League of Nations.

  • The principles of the world organization-to-be were thus laid down. But it is a long step from defining the principles and purpose of such a body to setting up the structure.

  • Representatives of China, Great Britain, the USSR and the United States met for a conference in Washington, D. C. The discussions were completed on October 7, 1944, and a proposal for the structure of the world organization was submitted by the four powers to all the United Nations governments

  • On February 11, 1945,at Yalta voting procedure was discussed, and it summoned the San Francisco Conference.

5 March 1945 San Francisco Conference

  • The charter of UN was signed on 26th June 1945, which came into force on 24th October 1945.

  • The statute of ICJ is an integral part of UN Charter.

Preamble

We the people of UN decide:

  • to save succeeding generation

  • reaffirm faith in human rights, dignity and equality of rights for men and women.

  • justice and respect for the obligation

  • Social progress and better standard

To reach:

  • international peace and security

  • acceptance of principles

  • economic and social advancement

Principles

  • Sovereign equality

  • Honouring obligation

  • Peaceful settlement of disputes.

  • No usage of force

  • Assistance to UNO

  • Principle for non-members. Art (2)

  • Non-interference in domestic affair Art 2(7)

Important Articles

  • Article 3- Original members

  • Article 4-Admission of new members

  • Article 5- Suspension of members

  • Article 6- Expulsion

  • Article 108-Ordinary procedure

  • Article 109- Extra ordinary procedure

  • Amendments- 1963,1965, 1971

Questions

1. The charter of UN was signed on:

  1. 26th June 1945.

  2. 24th October 1945.

  3. 5th March 1945

  4. 11th February 1945

2. Article 6 of UN Charter:

  1. Original members

  2. Admission of new members

  3. Suspension of members

  4. Expulsion of members

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