E-Learning (Kurukshetra December 2020)

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Terminologies of Digital Education in Rural India

Digital Education in Rural India

Online Learning

  • Provision of electronics contents available on a computer or mobile device.
  • Use of internet and use of online facilities.
  • Use of programmes or apps.

Web-Based Learning

  • This refers to the process and practice of learning.
  • Use of web browsers.


  • Using electronic technologies for teaching-learning processes.
  • Learning process takes place either entirely or partially online.
  • Can be conducted by means of electronic media without the use of the internet.

Blended Learning

  • Combines virtual learning with traditional classroom learning.
  • Uses multiple methods to deliver learning.
  • Combines face to face interactions with online activities.
  • For e. g. , flipped classroom where online activities are completed outside the classroom.
  • Provides an opportunity for more in-depth discussion during the face-to-face time spent in classes.

Distance Learning

  • The participants are physically separated.
  • Provides instruction to a person/person in rural and remote areas.
  • Increasingly associated with online learning and use of virtual classrooms for live online teaching.

Virtual Learning

  • Creating virtual classrooms for rural and remote communities.
  • Online courses or online environments.
  • Electronic study contents.
Salient Features
  • Virtual learning is a learning strategy.
  • Remote access to an unlimited array of educational services worldwide.
  • Virtual classrooms and learning situations.
  • Individualized learning process.
  • Use of different learning styles.
  • Safe and secure learning environment.
  • Flexible learning in terms of time, location, and pac.
  • Cost-effective and time-effective, etc.

Pedagogy of Rural Digital Education

Requires tool sand resources like Online Learning, Flipped Learning, e-Learning, Learning Groups, WhatsApp Groups, YouTube Channels, Use of Apps, Blended/Hybrid Learning, iTunes, Google Drives, Drop Boxes, Mazic Boxes, Word Processors, Digital Pockets, Differentiated Learning, Individualized Learning, Personalized Learning and so on.

Access and Scope

Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009 and Its Amendments
  • To ensure equity in education with equal access to quality teaching and learning.
  • Innovative use of resources.


  • A national teacher training program.
  • Targeted for 42 lakh teachers is being rolled out on DIKSHA by NCERT using online courses.
  • 15 states have prepared to roll out Online Teacher Training Programs during the lockdown on DIKSHA e. g. , Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Haryana, Gujarat, Delhi and CBSE.
  • Total enrollments by teachers for courses between April to June 2020 has been 60 lakhs of which 43 lakh completed courses from across 7 states and CBSE.
  • Government of India՚s programme uses DIKSHA for COVID-19 training of Doctors, nurses, ASHA workers, NCC, NSS, NYKS volunteers.
  • Over 17 lakh individual trainings have been completed and certified between April and June, 2020.


  • Digital Infrastructure for Knowledge Sharing.
  • Launched in 2017 by Government of India.
  • A national platform for school education.
  • To address the challenge of remote learning especially in rural areas.
  • Available for all the learners of grades 1 to 12.
  • It can be accessed through a web-based portal and mobile application.

India Report Digital Education-2020:

  • DISKHA provides access to many curriculums linked e-content.
  • Several use cases and solutions such as QR coded Energized Textbooks (ETBs)
  • Courses for Teachers, quizzes, and others.
Salient Features of DIKSHA
  • Autonomy and choice with a national framework.
  • Online-Offline and varied types of devices.
  • Diversity of contents and energized textbooks.
  • Data provides the ability to see and empower.
  • Local language content and open licensing framework.
  • Bridging the physical and digital world.
  • Diversity, flexibility and evolving, etc.


  • A joint initiative of Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) , Govt. of India, National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) , New Delhi.
  • Showcasing and disseminating all educational e-resources including textbooks, audio-video resources, periodicals, and a variety of other digital resources.
  • The ePathshala Mobile App is designed for bridging the digital divide of rural India.
  • Facilitating the students, teachers, educators, and parents ease of access to eBooks.
  • Facilitates the people of rural Indian to access the print and non-print materials through websites and mobile apps.

Swayam Prabha Channels

  • Access to digital education through TV channels.
  • Swayam Prabha DTH channels support and reach those who don՚t have access to the internet.
  • 32 channels earmarked for school education and higher education separately.
  • High quality educational programmes are telecasted by the MHRD.

NROER-National Repository of Open Educational Resources

  • For sharing open educational resources.
  • Hosts large number of resources in many subjects.
  • Different languages for Primary, Secondary and Senior Secondary Classes.
  • Resources availability in:
    • Video, Image, Audio, Document and Interactive.
  • Initiated by the Department of School, Education and Literacy, MHRD, GOI.
  • Managed by the Central Institute of Educational Technology, National Council of Educational Research and Training.
  • All NCERT books are available in Flip book format.
  • Contents available on it are licensed to download, permitted to share.

ICT Scheme under Samagra Shiksha

  • Integrated the efforts of Computer Aided Learning (CAL) of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) .
  • ICT interventions of Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA) .
  • Financial supports have been extended by the Central Governments along with the State/UT Governments to:
    • Elementary, secondary, and higher secondary schools.

Shaala Darpan

  • An e-Governance platform for all Kendriya Vidyalayas in the country including rural areas.
  • Aims at improving quality of learning, efficiency of school administration, governance of school and service delivery to key stakeholders viz, students, teachers, parents, community members and schools.

Shaala Siddhi

  • The National Programme on School Standards and Evaluation (NPSSE) .
  • Comprehensive instrument for school education.
  • Leading to school improvement developed by the National University of Educational Planning and Administration (NUEPA, at present NIEPA) .
  • Enables the schools to evaluate their performance thereby bringing in improvement.
  • Government of India՚s support towards rural schools in their self-appraisal and improvement.


  • An integrated Library Management Software developed by National Informatics Centre (NIC) . , Department of Electronics and Information Technology.
  • Application is useful for automation of in-house activities of libraries.
  • To provide various online member services.
  • Can strengthen digital library facilities in schools and colleges of rural India.


  • The Digital Saksharta Abhiyan or National Digital Literacy Mission (NDLM) .
  • Formulated to impart IT training to people including Anganwadi workers, ASHA workers and authorized ration dealers in all the States/UTs across the country.
  • Aims at training non-IT literate citizens to become IT literate.
  • Encouraging effective participation in the developmental process.
  • Rural people benefit a lot due to this national scheme.

Pradhan Mantri Gramin Digital Saksharta Abhiyaan (PMGDISHA)

  • Operating computers or digital devices like smartphones and tablets in order to send/receive emails, sms, browse internet, access govt. services, digital payments, etc.
  • To bridge the digital divide specifically targeting the rural population.
  • Marginalized sections of the society: SCs/STs, Minorities, BPL, Women, Differently-abled persons.

Other Initiatives at National Level

Other Initiatives at National Level


  • UNISED India
  • Implementing various digital initiatives particularly in rural India.
  • The pedagogy and practices of such programmes and activities need replication at a faster rate for meeting the vision and mission of integrating digital education and virtual learning with innovative pedagogy.

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