2017 Nobel Prices- Medicine, Chemistry, Literature and Peace (Download PDF)

()

Download PDF of This Page (Size: 166.47 K)

Five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Alfred Nobel in 1895 are awarded for outstanding contributions in chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine. The 2017 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded to Jeffrey C. Hall (72), Michael Rosbash (73) and Michael W. Young (68) as announced by Nobel Assembly at Sweden’s Karolinska Institute.

Image of Circadian Rhythm

Image of Circadian Rhythm

Image of Circadian Rhythm

  • The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences selected Jacques Dubochet, Joachim Frank, and Richard Henderson for the 2017 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for developing cryo-electron microscopy for the high-resolution structure determination of biomolecules in solution.
  • Norwegian Nobel Committee selected Geneva-based International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons (ICAN) - coalition of non-governmental organisations from over 100 countries for 2017 Nobel Peace Prize

Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine Awarded to Jeffrey C. Hall (72) Michael Rosbash (73) and Michael W. Young (68)

Discovered molecular mechanisms controlling circadian rhythm explaining the adaptation of biological rhythm of plants, animals, and humans with Earth’s revolutions.

Circardian Rhythm

  • 24 hour cycle in physiological processes of living beings, including plants, animals, fungi and cyanobacteria.

  • Controls the biological functions as hormone levels, sleep, body temperature, and metabolism- synchronizing with the Earth’s movements.

Details of Study

  • Using the fruit fly isolated the gene controlling daily biological rhythm.

  • Subsequently found that this gene encodes a protein accumulating in cell during night and is degraded during the day.

  • Exposed the mechanism governing the self-sustaining clockwork inside the cell pointing to importance of proper sleep hygiene.

Nobel Medicine Prize

  • Given to discoveries enhancing understanding of life or practice of medicine.

  • Winners chosen by Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institute.

  • Carries prize money of 8 million Swedish kroner or 1.1 million dollars.

  • Medicine is first of the Nobel Prizes awarded each year of the five Nobel Prizes established by Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel, the inventor of dynamite in 1895.

    2017 Nobel Prize in Chemistry Went to Jacques Dubochet, Joachim Frank and Richard Henderson

    The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences selected Jacques Dubochet, Joachim Frank and Richard Henderson for the 2017 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for developing cryo-electron microscopy for the high-resolution structure determination of biomolecules in solution.

Image of Schematic Diagram of Cryo - EM

Image of Schematic Diagram of Cryo - EM

Image of Schematic Diagram of Cryo - EM

  • Richard Henderson in 1990 used an electron microscope to generate a 3D image of a protein at atomic resolution.

  • Joachim Frank made technology more widely applicable.

  • Jacques Dubochet helped with vitrification of water ensuring that biological sample retained its natural shape even in vacuum and while frozen.

What is Cryo-Electron Microscopy?

  • Specific electron microscopy forming three-dimensional (3D) image by collecting and combining thousands of projections of biomolecules.

  • Allows freezing mid-movement of biomolecules and visualizations of processes.

  • Allows capturing biomolecules in 3D by quickly freezing them at -150°C (i. e. at cryogenic temperature), preserving their natural shape- revealing the structure of the molecules.

  • Most important applications is in development of pharmaceuticals- study of fine cellular structures, viruses and protein complexes at molecular resolution

  • Before cryo-electron microscopy, earlier forms of electron microscopes would destroy the bio-molecules with their powerful beams.

2017 Nobel Prize in Chemistry Went to Jacques Dubochet, Joachim Frank and Richard Henderson

  • Awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in chemistry.

  • Winners chosen by Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institute.

  • Award administered by the Nobel Foundation and awarded by Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences on proposal of the Nobel Committee for Chemistry consisting of five members elected by Academy.

  • First Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded in 1901 to Jacobus Henricus van ’t Hoff, of Netherlands, “for his discovery of the laws of chemical dynamics and osmotic pressure in solutions. ”

Nobel Peace Prize 2017 Awarded to International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons

Norwegian Nobel Committee selected Geneva-based International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons (ICAN) for 2017 Nobel Peace Prize.

What is International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons (ICAN)?

  • ICAN is a coalition of non-governmental organisations from over 100 countries around globe.

  • Global civil society coalition of 468 partner organizations from 101 countries promoting full implementation of Treaty on Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons.

  • Leading civil society to achieve a world without nuclear weapons.

  • Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland.

Focus of ICAN

  • Shift disarmament debate on humanitarian threat posed by nuclear weapons

  • Draw attention to nuclear destructive capacity- catastrophic health and environmental consequences, and long-lasting effects.

Achievements of ICAN

  • ICAN ran a decade-long campaign to get rid of nuclear weapons drawing attention to catastrophic humanitarian consequences of nuclear weapons

  • Achieved treaty-based prohibition of such weapons- a ground breaking achievement

Kazuo Ishiguro Gets 2017 Nobel Prize in Literature

The Swedish Academy has selected Japanese-born English novelist Kazuo Ishiguro (62) for the 2017 Nobel Prize in literature for works with great emotional force uncovering the illusory sense of connection with the world.

About Kazuo Ishiguro

  • Born in 1954 in Nagasaki, Japan and moved to the UK when he was five years old.

  • Started writing in 1981 and has written seven novels- five short fictions and four screenplays.

  • Best-known works include “Never Let Me Go” and “The Remains of the Day”.

  • He had received four Man Booker Prize nominations and won it in 1989 for his novel ‘The Remains of the Day’.

Nobel Prize in Literature

  • The Swedish Academy decides on the recipient of the prize in any given year (if there is any).

  • The academy announces the name of the chosen laureate in early October.

  • The Academy is alleged to be biased towards European, and in particular Swedish, authors.

- Published/Last Modified on: November 9, 2017

Awards

Monthy-updated, fully-solved, large current affairs-2019 question bank(more than 2000 problems): Quickly cover most-important current-affairs questions with pointwise explanations especially designed for IAS, NTA-NET, Bank-PO and other competetive exams.