Agriculture and Allied Sectors: Kurukshetra April 2018 Summary – (Part 2) (Download PDF)


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Organic Farming for Sustainable Environment - International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM) is an international organization which regulates standards of OF & strengthens organic movement globally in its full diversity by uniting & assisting more than 120 countries about organic vision of the world.

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Agriculture and Allied Sectors: Kurukshetra April 2018 Summary (In English)

Dr. Manishika Jain explains Kurukshetra April 2018: Agriculture and Allied Sectors

  • System that sustains health of soils, ecosystems & people.

  • Organic Agriculture combines tradition, innovation & science to benefit shared environment.

  • OF system includes:

  • Biological farming

  • Nature farming

  • Regenerative agriculture

  • Alternate agriculture

  • Permaculture

  • Low input sustainable agriculture


  • Exclusion of agrochemicals

  • Maintenance of natural balance

  • Production of nutritious food

  • Enhancement of rural livelihoods w/profitable OF

  • Conservation of soil & water resources

  • Systematic raising of livestock along w/crop production

  • Conservation or enhancement of biodiversity & eco-system services

  • Prevention of pollution

  • Reduction in use of fossil fuel energy in agriculture

  • Development of more sustainable & productive agricultural system.

Components of Organic Farming

  • Crop & Soil Management

  • Nutrient Management

  • Plant Protection

  • Livestock Management

  • Soil & Water Conservation: In situ water conservation techniques like broad bed & furrow system, ridge & furrow system, inter-row water harvesting, inter-plot water harvesting, scooping, etc. can be adopted in dryland areas.

  • Pigeonpea & moth bean are drought resistant legumes, forage, & cover crops.

Importance of Organic Farming

  • 👌 OF is a system that is based on the 4 basic principles of health, ecology, fairness, & care for humans as well as ecosystems.

  • Nitrate leaching is considerably low in organic system, thus groundwater pollution is prevented.

  • Women Farmer’s Day will be celebrated on 15th October.

  • Organic foods are nutritious, tasty, & fresh. In most cases, these products are higher in vitamin C, antioxidant, etc. content.

Limitations of Organic Farming

  • Time taking process

  • Initially low yields are observed

  • Easy availability of chemicals

  • Requirement of large organic inputs

  • Low availability of quality inputs

  • Marketing facilities are less

  • Certification process

  • Research facilities are less

  • Training facilities for farmers are less

Image of Organic Farming

Image of Organic Farming

Image of Organic Farming

👌 Organizations & Government Schemes/Initiatives promoting Organic Farming:

  • National Organic Farming Research Institute, Gangtok, Sikkim

  • National Centre of Organic Farming, Ghaziabad, Uttarpradesh: 6 Regional Centers at Bangalore, Bhubaneswar, Panchkula, Imphal, Jabalpur, & Nagpur. i. e. National Project on Organic Farming

  • Participatory Guarantee System (PGS)

  • Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojana: expanded component of Soil Health Management (SHM) of a major CSS, National Mission of Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA), launched in 2015.

Organic Farming in Indian Economy

Image of Benefits of Organic Farming In Economic Terms

Image of Benefits of Organic Farming In Economic Terms

Image of Benefits of Organic Farming In Economic Terms

📝 Apiculture for Rural Livelihood

  • Beekeeping has the potential to develop as a prime agri-horticultural & forest-based industry.

  • Honey harvesting dates back to 7000 B. C. & is perhaps only industry which besides production of honey & beeswax helps in increased crop production through pollination of crops.

  • Only half a century ago that rearing of honey bee Apis cerana indica F. employing scientific techniques as a cottage industry was introduced on a scale.

  • 60s of last century, European honeybee Apis mellifera L. was introduced into country, since then it has successfully established in various parts of the country.

  • The raw material is in the form of nectar & pollen from flowers, which is freely available in nature. Beekeeping is a decentralized, forest & rural agriculture based industry.

  • Beekeeper needs li’l investment for beekeeping, need not to be landowner & does not require any sophisticated machinery.

  • At present, approximately there are about 5 million bee colonies in India, which produce 75000 tons of honey annually. India is one of the honey exporting countries. The major markets for Indian honey are Germany, USA, UK, Japan, France, Italy & Spain. Honey production in India increased geometrically since 2005, thanks to large scale rearing of A. mellifera.

Name of states

Table contain shows the name of states

Table contain shows the name of states


2010 - 11

2011 - 12

2012 - 13

2013 - 14

2014 - 15

2015 - 16

West Bengal







Uttar Pradesh














Types of Honey-Bees Found In India

Types of honey-bees native to India:

  • Apis florea F. , the li’l bee

  • Apis cerana F. the common Indian bee

  • Apis dorsata F. the rock bee

  • Apis mellifera L. was introduced during 60s of last century

  • Stingless bees comprising of Tetragonula sp & other genera are valued for the medicinal properties of their honey.

Management of Bee colonies for better Productivity

  • Honey extraction is done when honey flow begins to slow down, surplus honey only is removed from sealed combs.

  • 👌 Plant whose flowers are major sources of nectar for hive-bees are: Eucalyptus, Pongamia, Neem, Willow, Prosopis, Justicia

  • 👌 Plants which provide Pollen are: Date, Guava, Pomegranate, Rose, Duranta, Poppy, Sorghum, Maize, Isapgol

  • Plants whose Flowers are Major Sources of Nectar & Pollen both are:

  • Fruits: Almond, Apple, Apricot, Banana, Berries, Cherry, Jamun, Litchi

  • Vegetables: Carrot, Coriander, Radish, Cauliflower, Pumpkin, Garlic, Onion

  • Crops: Cotton, Sarson, Mustard, Rai, Toria

  • Ornamentals: Aster, Calendula, Cornflower, Cosmos

  • Roadside trees: Siris, Soap nut, Geranium

  • Herbs: Balsm, Polygonum spp. Dandelion

  • Shrubs & bushes: Barberry, Antigonum, Poinsettia

  • Some of the Plants whose Flowers are Useless to Honeybees are: Candytuft, Canna, Cineraria, Pansy, Flox

Increased Income of Farmers from Beekeeping

  • Benefit through increased crop production: Increasing productivity of certain crops like Mustard, Coriander, Black Cumin, Sesame, Guava, Oranges, Cucurbits

  • Benefit through increased honey production

  • Better price of honey through ensuring its quality

  • Diversification of apiary products

Government initiatives for popularization of Beekeeping

  • GoI took policy decision to revive various traditional village industries & All India Khadi & Village Industries Board (KVIB) was formed in 1954.

  • As importance of beekeeping increased, in 1981 All India Coordinated Research Project (AICRP) on Honeybee Research & Training was launched by ICAR involving Agricultural Universities. Central Sector Scheme entitled “Development of beekeeping for improving crop productivity” was launched by Ministry of Agriculture in 1994 - 95 during 8th 5 year plan. The scheme targeted production & distribution of honeybee colonies, organizing trainings & awareness programmes. A National Beekeeping Board was started to organize beekeeping activities.

  • Department of Agriculture, Co-operation & Farmers Welfare in the Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare have initiated establishment of Integrated Bee Development Centers (IBDC) in 2 phases during year (2015 - 16; 2016 - 17) & 2017 - 18.

  • The basic thrust of IBDC is to harness the potential or crops including cereals, pulses, oil seeds, commercial/horticultural crops by increasing productivity through improvement of pollination, maximize economic, ecological & social benefit by desirable diversification through bee keeping & consequent production of good quantity & quality of honey & beehive products for domestic & export market.

  • Based on the area under cultivation in India & bee forage crops, India has potential to harbor about 100 - 150 million bee colonies while current figure < 5 million colonies & increase production to 600, 000 metric tons.

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Agriculture and Allied Sectors: Kurukshetra April 2018 Summary (In Hindi)

Dr. Manishika Jain explains Kurukshetra April 2018: Agriculture and Allied Sectors

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- Published/Last Modified on: April 18, 2018


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