Agriculture and Allied Sectors: Kurukshetra April 2018 Summary – (Part 3) (Download PDF)


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Potential of Sericulture -Sericulture is imp. Industry in Japan, China, India, Italy, France & Spain. Introduction - Employment generation - farm & non-farm activity of this sector creates 60 lakh man days of employment every year mostly in rural sector.

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Agriculture and Allied Sectors: Kurukshetra April 2018 Summary (In English)

Dr. Manishika Jain explains Kurukshetra April 2018: Agriculture and Allied Sectors

Silk Production in India

  • 👌 Silk known as the “Queen of Textiles”

  • High employment oriented, low capital intensive & remunerative nature of its production.

  • Sericulture industry provided employment to approximately 8.25 million persons in rural & semi-urban areas in India during 2015 - 16.


  • Sericulture is one of the labour intensive cottage industries involving mulberry cultivation, silkworm rearing & egg production, reeling & weaving of the loom & other post cocoon processes like twisting, dyeing, painting, finishing etc.

  • Sericulture provides employment opportunities to 35 million people & practiced in Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Jammu & Kashmir & West Bengal (Mulberry Silk) Jharkhand, Orissa, Chhattisgarh & North-Eastern States (Non-Mulberry Silk)

  • 5 known commercial silks, namely, Mulberry, Tropical Tasar, Oak Tasar, Eri & Muga. Muga w/its golden yellow glitter is unique & prerogative of India.

  • Overall NE region contributes 18 % of India’s total silk production. India is 2nd largest producer of silk in the world.

  • The demand for superior quality bivoltine silk is increasing in India for domestic consumption as well as value added silk products for the export market.

Annual Silk Production in India

  • Central Silk Board publishes data on the annual silk production in India.

Central Silk Board (CSB)

  • Statutory body established in 1948 by act of Parliament.

  • Functions under Ministry of Textiles, GoI having headquarters at Bangalore.

  • 4 components:

  • Research & Development Training, Transfer of technology & IT initiatives.

  • Seed organization

  • Coordination & Market development.

  • Quality Certification systems, export, brand promotion & technology up gradation.

Major Challenges in export of silk products

  • Decreasing demand from major consuming markets.

  • Rising prices of raw silk yarn/fabrics.

  • Increased competition from blended silk (i. e. synthetic & polyester)

  • Changing fashion trends especially in Europe & US markets

  • Lack of availability of quality raw silk & dependence on China for the same.

Problems of Sericulture farming in India

  • Lack of knowledge, farmers are less aware of the improved scientific farming techniques.

  • Non availability of raw materials affects silk production

  • Crop failure: especially in the cultivation of mulberry

  • Bio-security measures: proper bio security & sanitation measures w/in the silk worm shed.

  • Pest & diseases: there is possibility of silk production to be affected by pest & diseases.

  • Health risk – especially for sericulture farmers & people who manage silkworm shed.

  • Unavailability of govt. loans & subsidies discourage silk production

Operation Greens

  • Indian economy largely dependent on agriculture & its allied sector, which accounts for approx. 18 % of the total gross domestic productivity (GDP). 57 % of total Indian workforce is directly or indirectly engaged in agriculture.

  • Problems haunting agriculture sector are:

  • Illiteracy among farmers

  • Scarcity of capital

  • Small & fragmented land-holdings: 69 % of the Indian farmers are marginal farmers & have land holding of less than one hectare.

  • High cost of agri-inputs like seeds, agro chemicals & agriculture technology

  • Lack of proper irrigation facilities

  • Lack of mechanization & modern agriculture technologies

  • Lack of information about soil health & its management

  • Poor agriculture marketing services

  • Inadequate post-harvest storage & transportation facilities

  • Solutions of above mentioned problems:

    • Illiteracy of farmers: reasons for failure of literacy programs are (i) programs are voluntary & not compulsory. (ii) People don’t link literacy to their daily routine life. (iii) Due to poor economic condition many people are preoccupied w/problems of food, health, employment & self-reliance. (iv) Lack of motivation & missionary zeal among individuals & functionaries involved in these programmes. (v) Strong political will

    • Problem of fragmented land: it can be overcome by bringing in legislation for consolidation of holdings i. e. chakbandi enacted in Punjab, Haryana & parts of UP.

    • Problem of capital scarcity: Govt. has come up w/several farmer centric credit schemes:

    • Kisan Credit Card

    • Interest assistance schemes: farmers are provided w/loan up to Rs. 3 lakh w/effective interest rate of 4 % interest rates if loans are timely repaid.

    • Investment loan scheme

    • Problems of quality seeds, ago chemicals & modern technologies:

      • Solving the problem of credit crunch

      • Dissemination of knowledge & training

      • T. V channel named DD-Kisan

      • 24 x 7 Kisan Call Centre

      • Kisan helpline is free of cost

      • Organizing “Krishi Mela” & Training Camps for spread awareness

    • Problem of transportation & sale of agriculture produce:

      👌 Farmers suicides around 2 main issues: Loan waivers & increase in min. support price agriculture produce.

      Schemes launched by Govt. for benefit of farmers

      Name of Scheme: India Emergence Campaign through village emergence

      Purpose: To improve means of livelihood, accelerate rural development & strengthen Panchayati Raj

      Details: Scheme aims to provide villagers w/methodology of scientific farming, use of technology in agriculture & rural development, engagement of scientific experts for knowledge sharing, spreading awareness & training villagers for use of sophisticated equipment & technologies.

      Launch of “Operation Greens” (OG) in the lines of “Operation Flood” (OF) w/seed capital of Rs. 500 cr. Main aim of the OG is to enhance income of farmers.

      • Four-point action Plan:

      • Better remuneration to farmers for their agriculture produce by reforming the existing marketing structure

      • Raising productivity by using modern, scientific, environmentally safe & sustainable agriculture technologies

      • Reforming land policy to make farming & economically viable profession even for small marginal farmers

      • Provide capital support, subsidies & insurance schemes for economically supporting farmers

    “Operation Flood” (OF) was launched in 1970 for increasing milk production & empowering farmers in a span of mere 46 years transformed India from milk importer to world’s number one milk producer.

    • Some Steps for Operation Greens:

      • Formation of National Agriculture Market (e-NAM) in line w/National Milk Grid (NMG)

      • Modernization of agriculture in line w/modernization of milk production

      • Revamping of transportation, storage & agriculture marketing facilities: govt. has promised a budget of Rs. 2000 cr. for development of agriculture infrastructure under Operation Greens.

    • Initially govt. has targeted 3 main vegetables on TOP priorities under this mission i. e. Tomato, Onion & Potato. In the opening years, govt. wants to control over precarious prices of these commodities.

Gobar Dhan: Waste to Wealth

  • Galvanizing Organic Bio-Agro Resources Dhan (GOBAR-DHAN) announced by GoI on 1st Feb. , 2018 in the Union Budget.

  • Objectives of this initiatives is to make villages clean & to generate wealth & energy from cattle & other waste.

  • Initiative is expected to create opportunities to convert cattle dung & other organic waste to compost, biogas & even larger scale bio-CNG units.

  • It will create new opportunities for jobs linked to waste collection, transportation, biogas sale etc.

  • According to study by International Labour Organization during 2014, productive use of dung could support 1.5 million jobs nationally.

Cattle dung as Manure

  • India’s cattle population is around 300 million. On an average cattle produces 4 - 6 tons of fresh dung per year. From this 300 million cattles, approx. 1200 - 1800 million tons dung can be obtained. This quantity is sufficient to fulfill the organic manure requirement for 132 million hectares of cultivable lands in India at 9.09 - 13.64 tons/ha.

  • In India, 69.9 % cattle population resides in rural areas, where cow is major cattle & generates 9 - 15 kg dung/day.

  • Cattle dung, a mixture of faeces & urine in the ratio of 3: 1, mainly consists of lignin, cellulose & hemicelluloses. Also contains 24 diff. minerals.

Cattle dung as Vermicompost Bio-Manure

  • 👌 Vermicomposting is a method of preparing enriched compost w/use of earthworms.

  • Earthworms consume animal wastes & excrete it in digested form called worm casts. 👌 Worm casts are popularly called as black gold. Casts are rich in nutrients, growth promoting substance, beneficial soil micro flora & having properties of inhibiting plant pathogenic microorganisms.

  • Vermicompost contains 5 times available nitrogen, 7 times available potash & 1.5 times more calcium than found in good top soil.

Dung as Bio-energy

  • Biogas, a mixture of diff. gases produced by anaerobic fermentation of organic matter from methanogenic bacteria, mainly constitutes methane (50 - 65%) & CO2 (25 - 45%) . 1 kg of cow manure can produce 35 - 40 ltr. Of water w/hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 55 - 60 days maintained at an ambient temp. of 24 - 26 °C. Cow dung is major source of biogas gas production in India.

  • Max. production of biogas from that plant is 39.00 l/kg (0.039 m3 ) & 40.04 l/kg (0.04 m3 ) respectively when operated at the temp. of 23.5 °C. Farmer gains 13.87 metric tons of organic fertilizer per year from biogas plant.

  • Gram Vikas Trust started GOBAR Bank initiative in Surat, Gujarat, where members bring fresh cow dung to the community biogas plant.

Clean India

  • According to United Nations Food & Agriculture Organization (FAO), animal waste on this planet produces around 55 - 65 % methane, which upon release in the atmosphere can affect global warming 21 times higher than rate CO2 does.

Biogas slurry as Organic Manure

  • 👌 During the process of biogas production, animal dung is converted into biogas slurry, which is good quality manure & can be applied in agricultural fields as soil conditioners.

  • Biogas slurry is a digested source of animal waste & if animal urine is added, more nitrogen is added to the slurry, which can speed up compost-making process in short period of time. This improves carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio in slurry that provides easily nutrient availability to plants & soil biota.

  • The biogas slurry has 93 % water & 7 % of dry matter, of which 4.5 % is organic matter & 2.5 % inorganic matter. Biogas slurry is considered a good source of organic fertilizer as it contains considerable amounts of both macro (N, P, K) & micronutrients (Zn, Mn, B) are necessary for plant growth.

  • Biogas slurry is pathogen-free & fermentation of dung in the reactor kills organisms causing plant disease.

Integrated Development of Horticulture

Horticulture contributes 30 % to GDP of agriculture from nearly 13 % of the total cropped area & support nearly 20 % of the agricultural labour force. India is 2nd largest producer of fruits & vegetables in the world after China with contribution of 11.84 & 13.36 % in total world production of fruits & vegetables respectively.

Strengths of Horticulture Sector

  • Area under fruit crops during 2015 - 16 was 6.4 million ha. With total production of 91.4 million metric tons (MT) during the period, production of fruits increased by about 7%.

  • India is a leader in production of vegetables like peas & okra.

Recent Policy Initiatives

National Horticulture Mission was launched in 2005 - 06 as a Centrally Sponsored Scheme to promote holistic growth of the horticulture sector through area based regionally differentiated strategies. It is during this period that 3 flagship schemes namely, NHM, HM for NE & Hilly Areas & Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana having impact on horticulture development were implemented simultaneously.

Food Processing & Value Addition

  • Budget for 2018 - 19 proposes to set up state-of-the-art facility in 42 mega food parks, which are in diff. stages of functioning.

  • Last year, Dairy Processing & Infrastructure Development Fund have been set up under NABARD with corpus of Rs. 8, 000 cr. over 3 years. The fund was started with a corpus of Rs. 2, 000 cr.

  • It has been estimated for India that for every Rs. 10 million invested in food processing, it creates 18 jobs directly & 64 indirectly in the organized sector & 20 jobs in the unorganized sector across supply chain.

  • As per Annual Survey of Industries 2013 - 14, the food processing industry as compared to other industries in the registered sector has the largest number of factories & engages largest number of employees.

Emphasis on Better Post-harvest Handling & Cold Chain Facilities

  • In India, there is need to upgrade cold chain logistics for better post-harvest handling of the horticultural produce. The present capacity of cold storage is estimated at around 32 million tons in the country. Ministry of Food Processing Industries has launched ‘Pradhan Mantri Kisan Sampada’ Yojana for ‘Integrated Cold Chain & Value Addition Infrastructure’ for which expression of interest is invited from time to time.

  • So far, 134 Integrated Cold Chain Projects have been sanctioned by the Ministry in the country to reduce the cold chain gap. Of this, 88 Integrated Cold Chain projects have achieved completion & commenced commercial operation, 46 Integrated Cold Chain projects are in various stages of implementation.

  • In 2016 - 17, 4 Mega Food Parks & 29 Cold Chain Projects were operationalized.

Better Pricing of Crop Harvest

  • Coverage of National Agricultural Market (e-NAM) was expanded from current 250 markets to 585 APMCs.

Strengthening of Irrigation Potential

  • According to recent concept paper of NITI Aayog, out of 160 million hectares of cultivable land in India, only about 65 million hectares or 41 % is covered under irrigation.
  • Just 8.6 million hectares are currently covered under micro-irrigation compared to a potential 69.5 million hectares.

Development of Technology-based Precise Crop Production Packages

  • Agriculture Ministry is working on a project called 👌 CHAMAN (Coordinated Horticulture Assessment & Management using geo-informatics) which is making use of satellites & remote sensing technology. CHAMAN project will help in accurate forecasting of area & production of 7 major crops in about 185 districts across India. Study will be taken up in 8 states namely Maharashtra, AP, Karnataka, TamilNadu, Gujarat, MP, & Haryana & HP.

  • Project is being implemented by Delhi-based Mahalanobis National Crop Forecast Centre & is likely to be completed by March.

High-tech Crop Production Demonstrations

  • Horticultural crops for motivating farmers

  • 👌 For vegetables, it is in Karnal (Haryana); for mangoes in Dapoli (Maharashtra); for citrus fruits in Nagpur (Maharashtra), both in Maharashtra & one for pomegranates in Bassi (Rajasthan).

Priority Issues for the Future

  • Quality Planting Material:

  • Unorganized sector is the source of more than 60 % planting material

  • As per star-rating programme of the National Horticulture Board (NHB), of the 689 nurseries rated none was 5-star rated & only 25 were 4-star rated.

  • High Density Planting (HDP):

    • Accomplied with assured irrigation & higher application of essential nutrients

    • In HP, a World Bank aided project of Rs. 1134 cr. is in operation where HDP in approx. 18000 ha area is one of the imp. component for productivity enhancement in apple.

    • In 2017, more than 1 lac plants were planted in 110 orchards in J & K which were imported from Italy & Netherlands.

  • High-tech Protected Cultivation:

    • High-tech Protected Cultivation which result in 5 - 12 times higher output than cultivation in the open field.

    • 👌 Spain is the leader in the protected cultivation with 60, 000 ha area under polyhouses & greenhouses.

    • Netherlands with 34, 000 ha, China have more than 24, 000 ha & Israel have more than 20, 000 ha area under protected cultivation.

    • 👌 Indo-Israel Centre for Excellence in Vegetables has been established at Gharaunda near Karnal & project is spread over 15 acre & doing a business of Rs. 55 lakh per annum.

  • Strengthening of Logistics for Better Post-harvest Handling of Crop Harvest:

    • Boost floriculture sector in & around Bengaluru.

    • Need to Streamline Marketing of Crop Harvest:

    • Centre’s proposed Online National Agriculture Market (NAM) will adopt many of the best practices.

    • Infusion of Recent Scientific Advances in Crop Production Technologies:

    • Use of sensor based irrigation network (WSIN) has potential benefits in terms of reduced use of water & decreased CO2 emissions.

    • Need to Modernize Technology Transfer Tools:

    • Comprehensive Kisan knowledge Management Systems (KKMS) should be developed

  • Need for Integrated Disease & Pest Management Strategies

  • Strategies to Mitigate Climate Change

Floriculture Initiatives in India

  • Floriculture includes cultivation of flowering & ornamental plants for direct sale or for use as raw materials in cosmetic & perfume industry & in the pharmaceutical sector.

  • Worldwide more than 140 countries are involved in commercial Floriculture. Leading flower producing country in the world is Netherlands & Germany is biggest importer of flowers. Countries involved import of flowers are Netherlands, Germany, France, Italy & Japan while those involved in export are Colombia, Israel, Spain & Kenya.

  • USA & Japan continue to be highest consumers.

Floriculture in India

  • GoI has identified floriculture as a sunrise industry & accorted it 100 % export oriented status.

  • Commercial floriculture is becoming imp. from export angle.

  • 👌 Agricultural & Processed Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA), is responsible for export promotion & development of floriculture in India.

Economics of Floriculture

Economic Importance of Flower Production:

  • Perfume industries

  • Earning huge foreign currency

  • Considered as a commercial commodity

  • Can help solving unemployment problem

  • More unused land under flower cultivation

Import Status

  • Largest importers on flowers – USA (232 cr. US $) Japan (192 cr. US $), Germany (180 cr. US $), France (77cr. US $), Italy (55.6 cr. US $), Holland (50 cr. US $)

  • 👌 Israel has come up as biggest grower of flowers, using modern agro-techniques like glass-house culture, drip irrigation, liquid pesticides & fertilizers application along with drip irrigation channels, Tissue Culture.

Flower Cultivation

  • 👌 Karnataka is the leader in floriculture with about 29, 700 hectares under floriculture cultivation.

  • Major flower growing states are Tamil Nadu & AP, West Bengal, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Delhi, Haryana.

Export Constraints

  • Number of challenges mainly related to trade env. , infrastructure & marketing such as high import tariff, low availability of perishable carriers, higher freight rates & inadequate refrigerated & transport facilities.

Government Programs & Policies

  • 100 % Export Oriented Units are given benefits like duty free imports of capital goods. Import duties have also been reduced on cut flowers, flower seeds, tissue-cultured plants.

  • “Integrated Development of Commercial Floriculture” which aims at improvement in production & productivity of traditional as well as cut flowers through availability of quality planting material, production of off season & quality flowers through protected cultivation, improvement in post-harvest handling of flowers & training persons for a scientific floriculture.


  • National Horticulture Board helps one to establish a flower business.

Rythunestham Foundation: Harbinger of Innovative Agricultural Practices

  • A case in point is the altruistic services being rendered by RythuNestham Foundation in the Telugu speaking states of Telangana & AP.

Rythu Nestham Foundation

  • This Foundation has been run by son-of-the soil Y. Venkateswara Rao as a non-profit entity & multiple activities without any grants. At the core of this Foundation’s activities is the publication of 3 monthly magazines entitled RythuNestham, PasuNestham & PrakrutiNestham for crop agriculture, animal husbandry & organic farming, respectively. The crop agriculture journal was started in 2005.

  • Foundation in enlarging access & spread of these journals & books.

  • It has developed an android app in 2017 to advise farmers on all related activities for organic agriculture including links to marketing of their crop, fruit, flower, livestock, dairy & fishery produce & is claimed to have 10000 registered framers at the end of 2017.

  • Foundation has been making consistent efforts to espouse the cause of farmers through diffusion of good agricultural practices (GAPs) & organic agriculture

  • 👌 Start-ups entered segment include The Living Greens from Jaipur, iKheti from Mumbai, Khetify & Edible Routes from Delhi, Homecrop from Hyderabad & Greentechlife & SquarefootFarmers from Hyderabad.

  • RythuNestham Foundation organized training programmes on roof top gardening, nursery maintenance & homestead gardens in the cities of Hyderabad, Vijayawada, Guntur & Vishakhapatnam.

  • These initiatives & individuals have to understand welfare needs of masses & adopt a practical approach to agriculture diffusing good agricultural practices tailor-made to agro-ecological zones.

Vaccines: A Crucial Pillar of Public Health

  • Till now, more than 2.5 cr. children & 68.7 lakh pregnant have been covered in 528 districts. The 1st 2 phases of Mission Indradhanush have led to an increase of 6.7 % in full immunization coverage per year as compared to 1 % increase/year in the past.

  • In Oct. 2017, PM launched Intensified Mission Indradhanush with a sharper focus on districts & urban slums with slowest progress. Total of 190 high-focus districts & urban areas across 24 states have been selected for intensified efforts. The aim is to achieve 90 % immunization by Dec. 2018.

  • With 2nd largest population, around 2.7 cr. children are born every year. India has the largest burden of under-five mortality, more than what prevails in some of the poorest countries in the world. 👌 The Under-Five Mortality Rate in India is 43/1000 live births (Sample Registration System (SRS) 2015), while the Infant Mortality Rate is 34/1000 live births (SRS 2016) & Neonatal Mortality Rate is 25/1000 live births (SRS 2015). This translates into estimated 10.8 lakh under-5 child deaths annually.

  • 👌 Vaccine –preventable diseases such as pneumonia (15%) & diarrhea (12%) are the leading under-5 childhood killers.

  • One child loses his/her life to pneumonia & diarrhea every 2 minutes. Approx. one lakh children die due to rotavirus induced diarrhea alone.

  • 👌 Universal Immunization Programme (UIP), launched in 1985, is one of the largest immunization programs of the world in terms of the geographical spread & diversity of areas covered.

  • Under this programme, about 27 lakh children are immunized every year against 12 deadly diseases.

  • To hasten the rate to at least 90 % coverage till 2020, Health Ministry launched Mission Indradhanush in 2014, where 7 vaccines (diphtheria, whooping cough, tetanus, polio, tuberculosis, measles & hepatitis B, meningitis & pneumonia due to Haemophilus influenza type B; Japanese Encephalitis is also being provided in selected endemic districts of the country) would be given to all those children & pregnant women who have missed out or left out under routine immunization rounds, covering all remote, far flung & difficult to reach areas.

  • In 2016, Rotavirus vaccine was introduced to combat Rotavirus Diarrhoea which can lead to malnutrition, stunted growth & even death.

  • Further, with a target to free India’s children from highly contagious measles disease by 2018, Measles-Rubella (MR) vaccine has also been launched this year.

  • Pneumococcal Vaccine (PCV) has been launched in May 2017 for reducing infant mortality & morbidity caused by pneumococcal pneumonia which is responsible for an estimated annual 5.6 lakh cases & more than one lakh deaths.

  • Inactivated Polio Vaccine (IPV) was introduced in the UIP in Nov 2015 & expanded across the country by June 2016.

  • To ensure these, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare launched an innovative digital platform to monitor vaccine supply chain in real-time, called Electronic Vaccine Intelligence Network (eVIN) . eVIN makes available complete information on amount of vaccines received, used, transferred & discarded at every cold chain point, now geo-mapped & coded, & sends alerts to relevant authorities if the stock position for each vaccine is less than min. recommended level, or exceeds max. level, is completely stocked-out or nearing expiration date.

  • Frequency of stock outs has reduced by 70%.

  • Country was declared free of polio in 2014, & has remained so due to the nation-wide Pulse Polio Immunization programme.

  • Another monumental public health achievement has been validation of India for Maternal & Neonatal Tetanus Elimination (MNTE) in April 2015, much earlier than global date of Dec. 2015

  • Infant mortality & under-5 mortality rates are declining. B/w 2013 & 2015, estimated 2.7 lakh children were saved, whereas during 2005 - 2015, death of one million infants was averted. Infant Mortality Rate has declined from 37 in 2015 to 34/1000 live births in 2016 & shown 8.1 % declined as against 5.1 % in the previous period.

  • Commitment of the govt. towards this is reflected in National Health Policy 2017 where 2.5 % of GDP is envisaged for the healthcare sector, in a phased manner.

Other Important Notes

👌 Blue Revolution: Towards Economic Prosperity of Fishermen

  • The restructured Central Sector Scheme on Blue Revolution: Integrated Development & Management of Fisheries (CSS) approved by govt. provides for a focused development & management of the fisheries sector to increase both fish production & fish productivity from aquaculture & fisheries resources of inland & marine fisheries sector including deep sea fishing.

  • Under scheme, it has been targeted to enhance fish production from 107.95 lakh tons in 2015 - 16 to about 150 lakh tons by the end of the financial year 2019 - 20.

  • Department has prepared a detailed National Fisheries Action Plan-2020 (NFAP) for next 5 yearswith aim of enhancing fish production & productivity & to achieve concept of Blue Revolution.

Swachh Shakti 2018 Celebrated on International Women’s Day

  • Last year, 6000 women sarpanches across country had assembled in Gujarat on occasion of International Women’s Day under banner of Swachh Shakti 2017.

  • This year, UP hosted Swachh Shakti 2018- largest State with a massive rural populace.

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Agriculture and Allied Sectors: Kurukshetra April 2018 Summary (In Hindi)

Dr. Manishika Jain explains Kurukshetra April 2018: Agriculture and Allied Sectors

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- Published/Last Modified on: April 18, 2018


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