Challenges of Linguistic Heterogeneity (Yojana December 2020) (Download PDF)

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Challenges of Linguistic Heterogeneity

  • In terms of mother tongues spoken.
  • Maharashtra is India՚s second most populous state.
    • 76 % of the population reported their mother tongue to be Marathi in 1971.
    • In 2011, only 69 % of the population reported their mother tongue to be Marathi.
    • In 2011, probability of two people drawn at random being able to have a conversation in their mother tongue was 0.5 in Maharashtra with 50 % probability that they share the same mother tongue.
  • In general, within a state the probability of two individuals having the same mother tongues is higher in rural areas than in urban areas.
  • The probability of two individuals having the same mother tongues is as low as 0.24 in Mumbai and 0.26 in Bangalore.
  • In Surat it is 0.4, Hyderabad 0.38, Kolkata 0.45, Ahmedabad 0.59, and Chennai 0.63.
  • Article 348 (1) of the Indian Constitution requires the proceedings of the Supreme Court and High Courts to be conducted in English.

BOCW (Building and Other Construction Worker՚s) Act

  • Migrants who have worked for 90 days in construction work are eligible to be registered.
  • Registered workers are eligible for social security benefits.
  • They get coverage for health and accidents.
  • The children get financial support for education.

Case Study

Maharashtra
  • The documents in the website of the Maharashtra BOCW contains some basic information on inter-state migrant workers in Marathi and English.
  • The language barrier is a big problem for a large proportion of migrants who don՚t speak or read Marathi.
  • Over 54 % of workers are from Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, and they find it inconvenient to fill a self-declaration from required for BOCW registration.
West Bengal
  • Appears to be sensitive to the issue of language diversity.
  • Section 3-B of West Bengal Official Language (Second Amendment) Act, 2012 provides for “Use of Urdu language, Hindi language, Santhali language, Oriya language and Punjabi language in rules and regulations.”
  • Applicable in districts, sub-division or blocks or municipality where the population of Urdu, Hindi, Santhali Oriya and Punjabi speaking people exceeds 10 % as a whole or part of the district like sub-division or block.
  • West Bengal has the maximum number of official languages among all the other states in India.

National Sample Survey Organization՚s Survey of Education

  • Conducted in 2007 - 08 and 2017 - 18.
  • Children enrolled in English medium school find it easier to maneuver through the challenges that are otherwise faced by the children from migrant families.
  • States like Uttar Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh have recognized the emerging realities and sought to convert the medium of instruction in many government schools to English.
  • Among all those aged 6 - 14 and 15 - 29 years, 34 % and 41 % are respectively bilingual.

Salient Features of NEP 2020

  • School Education.
  • Equitable and Inclusive Education; Learning for All.
  • Focus on Socio-Economically Disadvantaged Groups (SEDGs) . It can be broadly classified based on:
  • Gender identities (Particularly female and transgender individuals) .
  • Socio-cultural identities such as (SCs, STs, OBCs and minorities) .
  • Geographical identities such as students from villages, small towns, and aspirational districts.
  • Disabilities including the learning ones.
  • Socio-economic conditions such as migrant communities, low-income households, children in vulnerable situations, victims of or children of victims of trafficking, Orphans including child beggars in urban areas and the urban poor.

- Published/Last Modified on: April 13, 2021

Education, Economy, Govt. Schemes/Projects, Yojana

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