Climate Change-Global Scenario (Download PDF)

Doorsteptutor material for IAS is prepared by world's top subject experts: Get detailed illustrated notes covering entire syllabus: point-by-point for high retention.

Download PDF of This Page (Size: 198.48 K)

Climate Change-Global Scenario

Green Growth

  • OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development) released a report.

  • Title- “Green Growth Indicators 2017”.

  • Highlights-The slow progress in achieving the Green Growth.

  • Fostering economic growth and development.

  • Ensuring the natural assets continue to provide the resource and environment services.

  • Measured by Green Growth Indicators.

Covering everything from land use to CO2 productivity and innovation like

  • Environmental and resource productivity.

  • The natural asset base.

  • Environmental dimension of quality of life.

  • Economic opportunities and policy responses.

Report Highlights

  • China and the US extract the most non-energy raw materials.

  • India and Brazil (mostly biomass) and South Africa and Canada (mostly metals).

  • Nearly 90 % of green technologies originate in OECD countries.

  • Rising contributions of India and China.

Global Green Growth Institution (GGGI)

  • Headquartered in Seoul (South Korea).

  • A treaty based inter-governmental organization.

  • India is not the founding member but associated with research work.

Established in 2012 at the Rio + 20 United Nations Conferences on Sustainable Development.

  • Green Growth and Development relevance to India

  • A collaborative project of Global Green Growth Institute (GGGI).

  • The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI).

Mitigation Measures

Green Climate Fund

  • Recent G20 summit at Hamburg.

  • Disagreement between the US and the other 19 countries.

  • Sustainability of the Green Climate Fund (GCF).

  • A global fund created to support the efforts of developing countries.

  • Responding to the challenge of climate change.

  • Set up by the 194 countries who are parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 2010.

  • Part of the Convention’s financial mechanism.

  • Delivery of equal amounts of funding to mitigation and adaptation coming from developed

  • Countries and also from some developing countries, regions and one city (Paris).

GCF’s activities and Fund’s attention

  • Principle of country ownership.

  • National and subnational organisations.

  • Receives funding directly.

  • Needs of societies.

  • Least Developed Countries (LDCs).

  • African.

  • States Small Island Developing States (SIDS).

Global Seed Vault

  • The Svalbard Global Seed Vault.

  • Completion of 10 years of official opening.

  • It is a state-of-the-art seed protection facility.

  • Also known as the ‘Doomsday’ or the ‘Apocalypse’ Seed Bank or ‘Noah’s Ark for seeds’.

  • Situated in the remote Arctic Svalbard archipelago.

  • Established in 2008.

  • Serves as the primary backup for the world’s other seed banks.

  • Holding nearly one million seed samples from the world’s gene banks at present.

India’s Seed Vault

  • Situated at Chang La, Ladakh.

  • Joint initiative of the Defence Institute of High Altitude Research (DIHAR) and the National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources (NBPGR) in 2010.

  • Under the aegis of Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO).

  • Seed facility available in India- One set up by Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) New Delhi.

Indian Quake and Sagar Vani

  • Ministry of Earth Sciences.

  • ‘India Quake’ app and ‘Sagar Vani’ app launched.

  • To enable users receive information about natural hazards on land and water.

Quake App

  • Developed by National centre for Seismology.

  • Automatic dissemination of earthquake parameter such as location, time and magnitude.

  • Avoid delay of information in the vent of magnitude.

Sagar Vani App

  • Ministry of Earth Sciences.

  • A software platform.

  • Developed by ESSO Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services (INCOIS).

  • Uses state of art technology for dissemination of ocean related information.

  • Advisory services such as Potential Fishing Zone (PFZ) advisories.

  • Ocean State Forecast (OSF).

  • High Wave Alerts and Tsunami early warnings.

ESSO-Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services (INCOIS)

  • Set up as an autonomous body.

  • Ministry of Earth Sciences.

  • A unit of Earth System Science Organization (ESSO).

  • Mandated to provide information and advisory services to government agencies, industries etc.

International Cooperation

Sustainable Biofuels

  • Two day international conference.

  • Hosted by India on behalf of Mission Innovation and Biofuture Platform.

First Generation of Biofuels

  • Produced directly from food crops.

  • Most widely used feedstock- Wheat and Sugar.

Second Generation Biofuel

  • Produced from marginal croplands.

  • Unsuitable for food production or non-food crops.

  • Wood, organic waste, food crop waste.

  • For example- Jatropha.

  • Aimed at being cost competitive in relation to existing fossil fuels and increasing Net energy gains.

Third Generation Biofuels

  • Based on improvements on the production of biomass.

  • Advantage of specially engineered energy crops such as algae as its energy source.

Algae are cultured to act

  • A low-cost.

  • High energy.

  • Renewable feedstock.

Fourth Generation Biofuels

  • Aimed at producing sustainable energy.

  • Capturing and storing carbon dioxide.

  • The carbon dioxide captured can be then geo-sequestered.

  • Fourth generation biofuel production has become carbon negative due to carbon capture.

  • India’s first generation (2G) Ethanol plant has been setup in Uttarakhand.

Challenges

  • Sustainable Biofuel Innovation Challenge (SBIC).

  • Smart Grids Innovation Challenge.

  • Carbon Capture Innovation Challenge.

  • Converting Sunlight Innovation Challenge.

  • Clean Energy Materials Innovation Challenge.

  • Off-Grid Access to Electricity Innovation Challenge.

Biofuture Platform

  • A 20-country effort to promote an advanced low carbon bio economy.

  • Sustainable, innovative and scalable.

  • Proposed by Brazil- Serving as the interim secretariat.

National Policy on Bio-Fuels Features

  • Bio-diesel production from non-edible oil seeds in waste/degraded/marginal lands.

  • An indicative target of 20 % blending of biofuels, both for bio-diesel and bio-ethanol by 2017.

  • With periodic revision Minimum Support Price (MSP) for non-edible oil seeds would be announced.

  • With periodic revision announcement of Minimum Purchase Price (MPP) for purchase of bio-ethanol and bio-diesel.

  • Setting up a National Biofuel Coordination Committee, headed by the Prime Minister.

  • Providing policy guidance and coordination.

  • Setting up Biofuel Steering Committee chaired by Cabinet Secretary.

  • Coordinating Ministry for biofuel development and utilization- The Ministry of New & Renewable Energy.

- Published/Last Modified on: March 12, 2020

Health, Environment/Ecology

Developed by: