DTE 1-15 Dec 2019 (Download PDF)

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Seed Bombing in Chattisgarh: Seed bombing is a technique that introduces vegetation by throwing or dropping seed balls on barren land. This technique implies aerial reforestation and within a week a green carpet appears over the vacant patches. People from Rehmla Village in Chattisgarh Lakhanpur block march towards their forests armed with catapults and start bombarding barren patches across water streams and beyond hillocks with thousands of earthen balls. Seeds of mahua, tendu, various fruits, vegetables, herbs are embedded within these earthen balls. This technique has also emerged out to be an effective way of improving the nutritional and financial status of rural communities.

How to Make a Seed Bomb

Achieving Carbon Neutrality by 2050

  • Carbon neutrality means to maintain a balance between emitting carbon and absorbing carbon from the atmosphere in carbon sinks.
  • Carbon sink is a system that is capable of absorbing more carbon than it emits. For example soil, forests and oceans.
  • It is through forests fires, changes in land use or logging by which the carbon stored in natural sinks is released into the atmosphere. This is why it is essential to reduce carbon emissions in order to reach climate neutrality.
  • Carbon Sequestration is a process of removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and then storing it back.
  • Carbon offsetting is another effective way to reduce emissions and to pursue carbon neutrality which can be done through investment in renewable energy, energy efficiency or other clean, low-carbon technologies. For example ETS (EU՚s emission trading system) is an example of a carbon offsetting system.
  • In March 2019 the European Parliament asked for more ambitious emission reduction target for 2030 in order to reach the goal of carbon neutrality by 2050.
  • Sweden has set a target of net-zero emissions by 2045 and France and the UK by 2050.
  • Recently New Zealand has also joined the bandwagon of countries like the UK and Sweden that intend to achieve carbon neutrality by 2050.
  • In India Infosys became the first and the only company of its type to commit to carbon neutrality.
  • Infosys in 2011 made a pledge to become carbon neutral by 2020.
  • The company is building new energy-efficient buildings and upgrading its existing buildings thereby transitioning to 100 % renewable energy.
  • Carbon related emissions are being tracked using software applications and audited by a third-party verifier.
  • The three pillars upon which Infosys՚ approach to achieving carbon neutrality is based include reducing energy consumption through energy efficiency, transitioning to renewable energy sources and offsetting emissions that are beyond its control. The company has also promoted sustainable practices amongst its employees and vendors to reduce their footprint.
Achieving Carbon Neutrality by 2050
Achieving Carbon Neutrality by 2050

Indiscriminate Use of Antibiotics on Food Crops

  • World Health Organisation (WHO) has recognised the antibiotics streptomycin and tetracycline as “critically” and “highly” important for human medicine.
  • Streptomycin has been used in humans for “previously treated tuberculosis” that accounts for over 10 per cent of the estimated 2.7 million TB incidences in India.
  • It is also being used to treat multidrug-resistant TB and certain cases of TB meningitis.
  • For treating rickettsial diseases (gets transmitted by insects and is a covert re-emerging infection in India) . An antibiotic (doxycycline) belonging to the class of tetracycline has been chosen as the drug.
  • The indiscriminate use of Antibiotics may lead to the development and spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) . It has been projected that at least 10 million
  • People are likely to die of AMR every year by 2050.
  • Humans when exposed to such microorganisms (loaded with antibiotics in soil and water) their treatment becomes difficult as well as expensive.
  • It has also been observed that the traces of antibiotics remain in edible parts of the plant long after streptocycline is sprayed, affecting human health or making them resistant to the antibiotics.
Indiscriminate Use of Antibiotics on Food Crops
  • Recently Centre for Science and Environment researchers find that farmers are using crucial antibiotics as irrationally as they use pesticides near the banks of the Yamuna in Delhi as well as in Fazilka district of Punjab.
  • CIBRC (Central Insecticides Board & Registration Committee) recommends specific dosages of streptocycline for different crops. For example, a solution of 25 - 50 ppm (parts per million) is recommended for apples in case of fire blight; 100 - 150 ppm for beans with halo blight; and 40 - 100 ppm for tomatoes with bacterial leaf spots.
Examples of How Antibiotic Resistance Spreads

Climate Emergency

  • UN Climate Change Conference, known as COP25 gets underway in the Spanish capital, Madrid, on 2 December. This COP aims to take the next crucial steps in the UN climate change process.
  • Last year 24th Change Conference of Paris Agreement was organised in Poland.
  • Only six of the world՚s top 20 polluting nations have succeeded to meet the first round of their emission reduction targets declared under the 2015 Paris Agreement.
  • The Kyoto Protocol in Japan in 1997, set targets for 37 countries to cut greenhouse gas emissions. The targets set were different for each country depending how developed they were. United States pulled out in 2001 because of the legally binding targets. Canada pulled out in 2011.
Most G20 Nations Are Unlikely to Meet Their Paris Agreement
What Leads Where Global Emissions
  • India՚s climate action efforts have received a 2 Degrees compatible rating from the German Climate Action Tracker which also makes India the only major economy with such a high rating.
  • The emission mitigation efforts of the US being the World՚s largest carbon polluter has been observed to be critically insufficient based on the Germany՚s Climate Action Tracker.
  • The United States withdrew from the 2015 Paris Agreement as the treaty was not doing well.
Paris Climate Agreement
  • In 2018 COP24 in Katowice (is a city in southern Poland) finalises elements of the Paris Rulebook on the format for national targets, financial reporting, transparency requirements, and the global stocktake.
  • In 2019 Russia Agreement. The US triggers one-year countdown to final withdrawal.
  • The COP25 to be hosted by Chile shifted to Madrid a month before scheduled start date.
  • In 2020 Second round of nationally determined climate targets have been expected. Also by 2020 all countries have to announce a second set of nationally determined contribution (NDC) to mitigate climate change as per the Paris Agreement. Only one (the Marshall Islands) has done that so far.
  • Also 68 countries have stated their intention to enhance ambition or action in an NDC by 2020, representing 8 % of global emissions.
Polluters-In-Chief Global Emission
Share in CO2 Emissions (%)

- Published/Last Modified on: December 31, 2019


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