DTE 1-15 Nov Summary (Download PDF)


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Neurotoxins: These toxins are extremely destructive to the nerve tissues and cause neurotoxicity. They affect both developing and mature nervous tissue. Neurotoxins can block the nerve impulse and may cause muscle paralysis. These can be of plant, animals, minerals or atmospheric origins. The neurotoxins inhibit neuron control over ion concentrations across the cell membrane.

  • Some of the common examples are lead, ethanol (drinking alcohol), glutamate, nitric oxide, botulinum toxin (e. g. Botox), tetanus toxin and tetrodotoxin.

  • Most of the neurotoxin in India is smuggled from China and there is a severe need to curb this.




Solar Plants Benefits

  • It is a renewable energy source.

  • It involves low maintenance cost.

  • Reduced Electricity Bills.

  • We can generate electricity (Photovoltaics) or (Solar Thermal).

  • Solar Plants offer benefits by produce electricity in areas without access to the energy grid, to distill water in regions with limited clean water supplies and to power satellites in space.

  • The energy produced from Solar Plants can also be integrated into the materials used for buildings.

  • Nanotechnology and quantum physics can effectively increase the potential of solar panels in the form of electrical input of the solar power systems.

  • In India, Solar power is a fast developing industry. The country’s solar installed capacity reached 31.101 GW as of 30 September 2019. In addition to this India has the lowest capital cost per MW globally to install the solar power plants.

Solar Plants Benefits

Solar Plants Benefits

Solar Plants Benefits

GM Technology and BT Cotton

  • Genetically Modified crops are the plants with modified DNA using suitable genetic engineering techniques.

  • Around 10 % of the world’s crop lands are planted with GM crops.

  • The purpose behind Genetic Modification is to increase nutritional value, bioremediation and for other purposes like production of pharmaceutical agents, biofuels etc.

  • One of the main aims behind the introduction of GM technology is to introduce a new trait to the plant which does not occur naturally in the species like resistance to certain pests, diseases etc.

  • The concerns regarding GM crops include safety of GM foods, environmental concerns, business interests behind GM crops etc.

  • The increasing suicide cases among the farmers cultivating BT cotton all across India has also been one of the major concerns apart from pushing the farmers into debt.

  • The farmers are forced to buy GM seeds and technologies from multinational corporations as they lose their sovereign right over seeds.

  • Bt Cotton is a genetically modified pest resistant plant cotton variety which produces an insecticide to combat bollworm.

  • The BT Cotton yields in India expected to be 9 % less in 2017 - 18 than in the previous year.

  • As per the Maharashtra government estimates nearly 805 of the cotton area is affected by Pink bollworms.

Global Area of Biotech Crops

Global Area of Biotech Crops

Global Area of Biotech Crops

BT Cotton Production

BT Cotton Production

BT Cotton Production

Livestock Population rises in India

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  • The livestock population of India rises to 535.78 million in 2019 from 512 million in 2012.

  • This increase in the livestock population is because of the rising population of commercially exploited animals such as sheep and goats as per the 20th livestock census.

  • In 2012 there were 65 million sheeps which increased to 74.2 million in 2018.

  • The number of goats rose from 135.1 million in 2012 to 148.8 million in 2018.

  • The cow population has also risen by 18 per cent in the last six years due to the growing demand of crossbred cattle whose number increased by nearly 27 per cent in the past six years.

  • The population of oxen dipped by 30 per cent.

  • There has been a 46 per cent rise in backyard poultry birds, whose numbers have gone up to 317 million.

  • Uttar Pradesh has the highest number of livestock of 67.8 million, followed by Rajasthan (56.8 million) and Madhya Pradesh (40.6 million).

Livestock Population rises in India

Livestock Population Rises in India

Livestock Population rises in India

Global Hunger Index and Underfed Infants in India

The GHI combines 4 component indicators: 1) the proportion of the undernourished as a percentage of the population; 2) the proportion of children under the age of five suffering from wasting, a sign of acute undernutrition; 3) the proportion of children under the age of five suffering from stunting, a sign of chronic undernutrition; and 4) the mortality rate of children under the age of five

  • As per the Global Hunger Report 2019 India has been ranked 102 in the GHI table (out of 117 nations), which is lower than North Korea, Niger and Cameroon.

  • The neighbouring countries like Srilanka (66), Nepal (33), Pakistan (94) and Bangladesh (88) bagged better spots than India.

  • Over 90 % of the children between 6 and 23 months in the country do not even receive the minimum required food.

  • Stunting or shorter height of age has shown some improvement which is still high 37.9 % in 2019 from 42 % in 2010.

  • Undernourishment, child wasting, child mortality and child stunting are the four indicators considered by GHI for calucating hunger level and under nutrition worldwide.

Making Giant Strides

Making Giant Strides

Making Giant Strides

India Was At 93 In 2015

India Was At 93 In 2015

India Was At 93 In 2015

Generic Drugs

  • A generic drug contains the same chemical substance as a drug that was originally protected by chemical patents. They are also known as the pharmaceutical drug.

  • These drugs can only be sold or allowed for sale after the patents on the original drugs expire.

  • The Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) Rules, 2016 categorizes expired drugs as domestic hazardous waste and requires those to be segregated and stored in separate bins and disposed in accordance with the Biomedical Waste Management Rules. As per the rules the drugs should be incinerated at high temperatures.

  • The Generic Drugs cannot be returned once they expire and needs to be thrown away even the cut strips should not be taken back and have to be discarded.

Generic Drugs Whose Patent Has Ended

Generic Drugs Whose Patent Has Ended

Generic Drugs Whose Patent Has Ended

PM-KISAN or Pradhan Mantri Kisan Samman Nidhi Yojana

  • PM-KISAN is a scheme from the Central Government of India under which vulnerable landholding farmer families, having cultivable land upto 2 hectares, will be provided direct income support at the rate of Rs. 6,000 per year.

  • As many as 12 crore small and marginal farmer families are expected to benefit from this scheme.

  • The scheme became operational from 1December 2018.

  • The income support of Rs. 6000/- per year in three equal instalments (2000 Rs. each) will be provided to small and marginal farmer families having combined land holding/ownership of upto 2 hectares.

  • The complete expenditure of Rs. 75000 crore for the scheme will borne by the Union Government in 2019 - 20.

  • The direct cash transfer will have an immediate impact on reducing hunger and rural poverty.

  • The income support can be used to make a repayment or at least activate a bank account.

  • As per the revised Scheme in May 2019 around 2 crore more farmers will be covered increasing the coverage of PM-KISAN to around 14.5 crore beneficiaries, with an estimated expenditure by Central Government of Rs. 87,217.50 crores for year 2019 - 20.

PM-KISAN or Pradhan Mantri Kisan Samman Nidhi Yojana

PM-KISAN or Pradhan Mantri Kisan Samman Nidhi Yojana

PM-KISAN or Pradhan Mantri Kisan Samman Nidhi Yojana

  • The state of West Bengal didn’t implement the scheme because of the high number of sharecroppers.

  • The state has launched its own scheme under which it will pay Rs. 5,000 to farmers in two instalments.

  • The exclusion category includes beneficiaries of higher economic status, all Institutional Land holders; Farmer families in which one or more of its members belong to following categories:

  • Former and present holders of constitutional posts

  • Former and present Ministers/State Ministers and former/present Members of LokSabha/RajyaSabha/State Legislative Assemblies/State Legislative Councils, former and present Mayors of Municipal Corporations, former and present Chairpersons of District Panchayats.

  • All serving or retired officers and employees of Central/State Government Ministries/Offices/Departments and its field units Central or State PSEs and Attached offices/Autonomous Institutions under Government as well as regular employees of the Local Bodies (Excluding Multi-Tasking Staff/Class IV/Group D employees)

  • All superannuated/retired pensioners whose monthly pension is Rs. 10,000/-or more (Excluding Multi-Tasking Staff/Class IV/Group D employees) of above category

  • All Persons who paid Income Tax in last assessment year

  • Professionals like Doctors, Engineers, Lawyers, Chartered Accountants, and Architects registered with Professional bodies and carrying out profession by undertaking practices.

  • The beneficiary details include landholder farmer families in the villages capturing the Name, Age, Gender, Category (SC/ST), Aadhaar Number (in case Aadhaar Number has not been issued then Aadhaar Enrollment Number together with any other prescribed documents for purposes of the identification such as Driving Licence, Voters’ ID Card, NREGA Job Card, or any other identification documents issued by Central/State/UT Governments or their authorities, etc. ), Bank Account Number and the Mobile Number of the beneficiaries.

  • For the beneficiaries in States of Assam, Meghalaya, J&K where Aadhaar number has not been issued to most of the citizens, Aadhaar number shall be collected for those beneficiaries where it is available and for others alternate prescribed documents can be collected for identity verification purposes.

  • The State/UT shall be responsible for identifying the landholder farmer family who are eligible for benefit under the scheme.

Farmers in Himachal Pradesh using ditching traditional food crops to grow aromatic plants

  • Aromatic Plants are the plants used for their aroma and flavour, most of them are used for medicinal purposes.

  • Aromatic compounds are present in plants i. e. in root, wood, bark, foliage, flower, fruit, seed etc.

  • The Aromatic Plants offer higher and assured returns.

  • Since 2017, close to 700 hectares have been brought under the cultivation of aromatic plants such as wild marigolds in Himachal Pradesh.

  • Himachal Pradesh produced 7.6 tonnes of essential oil from wild marigold alone in the past two years which in turn benefitted 861 farmers who cumulatively earned Rs. 5.56 CR.

Traditional food crops to grow aromatic plants

Traditional Food Crops to Grow Aromatic Plants

Traditional food crops to grow aromatic plants

- Published/Last Modified on: November 20, 2019


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