DTE 1 to 15 January 2020 Part 2

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Extreme Weather and Climate Collapse

: It has been noted that the period from 2011 to 2015 has been the warmest five-year on record globally. As per the World Meteorological Organization 22 million people were displaced in 2019 due to extreme weather events. Since the pre-industrial period the average temperature in 2015 had already risen by more than one degree. In 2018 alone India՚s economic losses due to extreme weather events were $ 37,808 million. The year 2019 had already seen record-breaking heat for nine consecutive months.

  • It is the extreme weather that is responsible for western disturbances that have caused disasters in the form of cloud burst in Leh in 2010, the floods and landslide in Uttarakhand in 2013 and the excessive rain in Jammu and Kashmir in 2014.
  • The year 2012 was the hottest year in US history and second wettest in the UK. The year 2012 was reported to have suffered economic losses of over $ 100 billion due to extreme weather events as per the United Nations.
  • In 2019 alone as many as 144 countries were reported to have been displaced due to natural disasters.
How Climate Change Affects Your Health
  • Due to the new deal in Cancun (the Conference of Parties (CoP 16) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change) the developed nations are not under any obligation to commit legally to cut emissions. Whereas the developing countries are under binding commitments sharing the burden of cleaning up, financial and technological help.
  • The COP 16 took place from 29 November to 10 December 2010 in Cancun, Mexico.
  • The Cancun agreement violated the rights of Developing countries still was applauded by the World leaders.
  • The Cancun agreement ignored ambitious targets of greenhouse gas (increase in global temperature cannot exceed 2°C and also recognises the need to review whether the world should try keep it below 1.5°C) reduction to arrest average global temperature rise below 2°C-the guardrail fixed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) to avoid any catastrophic impacts of the climate change.
  • As per the first-ever Global Assessment Report on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services by Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem
  • Services (IPBES) nearly one million animal and plant species are under extinction due to extreme weather and climate collapse issues.
Risks and Impacts of Climate Change

Virtual World and the Battle for Internet

  • The internet completed 50 years in 2019 since two computers made node-to-node communication in 1969.
  • The government corporations including the innocuous social networking sites want to control and influence the way the Internet operates.
  • More than half of the human population globally is connected to internet.
  • Nearly 57 % of the world population is connected to the internet.
  • An average internet user spends more than six and a half hours online each day.
  • There are nearly 3.5 billion active social media users around the world.
20 Years of Internet Giants
  • The internet security has become a challenge with the growing use of internet.
  • The United States of America has decided to seize domain names and shut down websites, even those outside its territory and laws that strengthen the powers of the president in the time of a cyber-emergency including the use of a kill switch.
  • China with its one of the most advanced web monitoring and blocking systems can check every piece of luggage, coming in or going out through a scanner at the airports.
  • In India section 69A permits the Centre to “issue directions for blocking of public access to any information through any computer resource” , which means that the government can block any website.
  • The December 2008 amendments (after 2008 terrorist attack) have some good points but they also allow increased online surveillance.
Cyber Physical System

Antibiotic and Fatal Resistance

  • Antibiotic resistance is the resistance related to overuse of antibiotics also known as drug resistance. It is difficult to control it at the sametime.
  • During antibiotic resistance the effectiveness of drugs chemicals or other agents designed to cure or prevent infections get reduced.
  • Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) , penicillin-resistant Enterococcus and multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MDR-TB) are some of the examples of bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics.
  • It has been predicted that nearly 10 million people will die of antimicrobial resistance every year by 2050.
  • As per the 2019 reports chemical residues released from pharmaceutical and personal care products are not only becoming a major contaminant of water bodies in urban areas but are also becoming a source of drug resistance in the environment.
  • Cattle for example harbour resistant bacteria that could pose a problem to humans who come in contact with them.
  • It has also been revealed that poultry meat could be churning out robust microbes that can render all antibiotics ineffective.
  • The Union Minister of Health and Family Welfare formulated the National Policy for Containment of Antimicrobial Resistance in March 2011.
Examples of How Antibiotic Resistance Spreads

Sand Scarcity and the related conflicts and illegal trade

  • Sand is considered to be the second most consumed natural resource after water.
  • The excessive use of sand has driven rivers to dry and the local ecosystems have been ravaged.
  • Due to illegal trade of sand India has been reporting widespread cases of violent conflicts.
  • The world՚s third largest construction business is in India after China and US.
  • As per the 12th Five Year Plan an investment of 10 percent of the national GDP or ₹ 45 trillion in infrastructure has been projected.
  • The backlog of 24.7 million houses in 2007 (11th Five Year Plan) increased to 42 million units (12th Five Year Plan.
  • As many as two dozen small islands in Indonesia have disappeared since 2005 out of which eight of the islands used to be part of the Seribu Islands archipelago in Jakarta Bay.
  • To stop the illegal trade of sand the Supreme Court of India on February 27,2012 made
  • Environmental clearance mandatory for all mining sites. As per the directives the minor mineral mines will now have to undergo the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) process under the Environment Protection Act of 1986.
The Costs of Sand Mining

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