DTE 1 to 15 January 2020 Part 4

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Permaculture: Permaculture emphasizes the idea that a plantation should offer multiple benefits right from food and fodder to timber and fertilizer. The concept of Permaculture was first of all propagated in the 1970s by Australian biologist Bill Mollison and thereafter it gained acceptance in India after several enthusiasts who were influenced by Mollison during his visit to the country in 1987. Permaculture spreaded to 140 countries by 2016 and today more than 3 million people across the globe practise permaculture and claim that the novel farming system is the only way to make agriculture sustainable in the face of extreme weather events like recurrent droughts and unprecedented floods.

  • Permaculture can help achieve more with less resource, build resilience among small farmers, improve soil health and encourage people to grow their own food.
  • The profit potential under permaculture is giving farmers good dividends.
  • This technique also uses mulching, mixed cropping patterns and crop rotations to maintain the soil nutrients.
  • Some of the essential benefits of Permaculture include Nutrient Dense Food, Cut Costs, Bird and Bee Habitat, Low Maintenance, No Waste ad Reduced Watering.

Oceans of Plastic

  • It has been observed that in the decade of 2000 - 2009 produced plastic waste produced was more than the total of four decades before this.
  • Nearly 300 million tonnes of plastic waste was produced every day which is close to the total weight of the humans.
  • It has also been revealed that nearly 8.3 billion tonnes of plastics have been produced in the world since 1950s.
  • Over 8 million tonnes of plastics enter the oceans every year.
  • It has also been projected that by 2050 the number of plastic entities would be equal to the number of fish in the sea. At present as much as 80 per cent of all the litter in the oceans is made of plastic.
  • Each year Plastic waste alone is estimated to kill up to 1 million birds, 100,000 sea mammals and countless fish each year.
  • One of the biggest threats to marine ecosystems is the micro plastics or small plastic particles from cosmetics, tyres, artificial grass, paints and clothes.
  • The phytoplanktons (microscopic plant-like organisms) ingest micro plastics wastes.
  • Norway committed to reduce the amount of micro plastics ending up in the ocean.
  • Indonesia committed to reduce 70 per cent of its plastic debris by 2025.
  • Germany provided money for mangrove protection, whereas China committed to comprehensively control marine environmental pollution, gradually improve water quality in offshore areas and eliminate illegal sewage outlets.
  • In 2019 the Coca-Cola Co has emerged as the number 1 global plastic polluter for the second consecutive year according to a report on the top 10 plastic polluting companies in the world. The beverages brand was followed by Nestlé SA and PepsiCo In.
Oceans of Plastic
Reducing Marine Litter

Sleeplessness and Hibernation Distress in the Modern World

  • It forms an important part of our daily routine.
  • Sleeping 6 - 8 hours a day is a must in order to avoid any type of mental stress.
  • Sleep deprivation or the lack of proper sleep can cause physical as well as mental disorders.
  • One should avoid late night parties, movies and TV programmes to cut down any mental or physical stress.
  • The most common sleeping disorder is insomnia and there can be several diseases like Sleepwalking; Dyssomnia, Hypersomnia that can be caused due to sleeplessness.
Sleeplessness and Hibernation Distress in the Modern World
  • Hibernation is a survival tactic adopted by many animals especially the cold-blooded ones to avoid extreme weather conditions.
  • The hibernation among animals is affected due to human induced climate change, weather patterns have been changing across the globe.
  • Hibernation is responsible for extreme conditions of cold and heat, lack of food and threat of predators.
  • For most of the animals Hibernation is a period of energy conservation. During this time, they
  • mostly remain curled up in safe place like a cave or den.
  • Hibernation plays an important role in maintaining the ecological diversity of a region.
  • An unusual rise or drop in seasonal temperatures disrupts the natural cycle of animals,
  • known to hibernate during a specific time of the year. For example, Asiatic bears in Kashmir have recently started spending the winter season “awake” looking.

Know the MCQs

  • The Indus River and its tributaries, which flow through parts of China, India, Afghanistan and Pakistan, are among the most vulnerable “water towers” in the world.
  • Lithium Cabs, an all-electric cab service, originally from Bengaluru, has already started operations in the National Capital Region.
  • Nagpur was the first city in India to have an electric cab fleet, introduced by Ola Cabs plying within the city limits.
  • Nearly 144 Countries reported displacement due to natural disasters in 2019.
  • 2019 marked the 50 years of Internet since two computers made node-to-node communication in 1969.
  • It has been projected that nearly 10 million people will die of antimicrobial resistance every year by 2050.
  • Approx 18 kg of sand is extracted per each inhabitant in the planet.
  • The International Energy Agency has projected a rapid increase in installed capacity of solar power by 2040, from 495 GW now to 3,142 GW, in its latest World Energy Outlook.
  • The global generic drugs market in 2022 is expected to be $ 309 billion.
  • The International Maritime Organization՚s Maritime Safety Committee signed the Polar Code and other amendments to the Safety of Line at Sea Convention as a precaution to protect people and the environment as shipping has been predicted to increase in the Arctic.
  • The release of melatonin hormone in our brain during darkness pushes us to sleep.
Sleeplessness and Hibernation Distress in the Modern World

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