Dark Net, DDOs Attack, National Common Mobility Card (NCMC) and Earth BioGenome Project (Download PDF)

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A computer network with restricted access. Used chiefly for illegal peer-to-peer file sharing. Also refers to networks that are not indexed by search engines such as Google, Yahoo or Bing. Only available to a select group of people and not to the general internet public. Only accessible via authorization, specific software and configurations.

DDOs Attack

  • A new malware called Saposhi.
  • It is a malware (malicious software) attack.
  • Capable of taking over electronic devices and turning them into bots.
  • Can be used for purpose such as a Distributed Denial of Service attack.
  • An alert about Reaper had been issued by CERT in 2017.
  • Reaper is a highly evolved malware capable of hacking devices like Wi-Fi routers and security cameras.
  • Mirai- malware that used a botnet of 5 lakh devices to crash the servers of Dyn, a leading domain name service provider, affecting services of popular websites like Twitter, Netflix and Reddit.

National Common Mobility Card (NCMC)

  • Bank-issued cards on debit/credit/pre-paid card product platform.
  • Enables people to pay multiple kinds of transport charges.
  • Includes metro services and toll tax, across the country.
  • Also known as ‘One Nation One Card’

First Indigenously Developed Payment Eco-system for transport

  • SWAGAT (Swachalit Gate) .
  • NCMC Card.
  • Ministry of Housing & Urban Affairs.
  • To enable seamless travel by different metros and other transport systems.
  • Inter-operable transport card.
  • Would allow the holders to pay for their bus travel, toll taxes, parking charges, retail shopping and even withdraw money.


  • Helps in saving time and efforts.
  • Promotes smart travel as a card can be used in different modes of transport.
  • High degree convenience to people.
  • Works as a debit card ensures proper customer support services.
  • Time efficient, very easy and cashless.


  • Very difficult for uneducated people.
  • Upgrade affects the people.
  • Delay may leads to poor customer services.
  • Large setting up cost.
  • Requires more man power for solving the problem.

Earth BioGenome Project

  • Aims to sequence the genomes of the roughly 1.5 million known animal, plant, protozoan and fungal species.
  • Characterization of the genomes of all of Earth՚s eukaryotic biodiversity over a period of 10 years.
  • Officially launched in London.
  • An estimated cost of US $ 4.7 billion.
  • Provides a complete Digital Library of Life.
  • Less than 0.2 % of eukaryote genomes have been sequenced so far.

- Published/Last Modified on: March 20, 2020


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