# Developments and Their Applications and Effects in Everyday Life (Download PDF)

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### Change in âKilogramâ Definition

• Redefinition of the International system of units (SI) .
• Seven fundamental units.
• Based on unchanging properties of nature.
• These are the second (time) , the metre (distance) , and the candela (luminous intensity, a measure for lightŐs brightness) .
• New measure would be the mass of one cubic decimetre of distilled water at 4Â°C (the temperature at which water has its highest density under standard conditions) .
• Replacement of the variable measurements with the international prototype kilogram (IKP) , used today, which is a metal cast from a mixture of platinum and iridium to make it very hard and prevent it reacting with oxygen.
• Six copies related to IKP (international prototype kilogram) have been shared across the world to ensure all participating countries use the same standard.
 UNIT QUANTITY HOW IT WILL BE DEFINED Meter Distance Based on Speed of light. Kilogram Mass Based on PlanckŐs constant. Second Time Based on radiation of caesium-133 atom. Ampere Current Based on an electronŐs charge. Kelvin Temperature Based on Boltzmann constant. Mole Amount of Substance Based on Avogadro constant. Candela Luminous intensity Light of specific frequency.

### Proposed Measure

• Kilogram measurement should be based on precise values of constants of nature.
• New Definition uses a measurement from another fixed value from nature, PlanckŐs constant (h) .
• PlanckŐs constant will be defined as 6.62607015 Ă 10 â 34 joule seconds.
• PlanckŐs constant can be found by dividing the electromagnetic frequency of a particle of light or photonâ by the amount of energy it carries.
• Can be expressed as kilogram square metres per second.
• SI Unit of metre- Based on another universal constant, namely the speed of light.
• Metre definition- The distance travelled by light in vacuum in 1 â 299,792, 458 of a second (which is already defined) .
• Change in the definition of Kilogram will be better for technology, retail and health.

### Solution to Reduce Wastage of Pesticides

• A lipid compound (Glyceryl-Mono-Oleate (GMO) , a natural wax-like solid extracted from sunflower oil) has been found by CSIR.
• Reducing the wastage of pesticides by slippage.
• CSIR is IndiaŐs contemporary R&D organization.
• CSIRŐs R&D expertise and experience-Part of about 4600 active scientists supported by about 8000 scientific and technical personnel.
• Provides significant technological intervention in many area.
• Includes environment, health, drinking water, food, housing, energy and Farm and non-farm sectors.

### Significance of the Innovation

• Pesticide residue leeches to the ground, mixes with the water cycle and the food chain which has long term consequences for man.
• Spraying of pesticides increases its slippage into the ground.
• Ecological point of view-Spraying large amount of pesticides to keep the plants away from insects and pests.

### Science Based Targets - Transition to Low Carbon Economy

• Driving companies thereby contributing to tackling climate change.
• A joint initiative of CDP, the UN Global Compact (UNGC) , the World Resources Institute (WRI) and WWF.
• An initiative to drive corporate climate actions globally.
• Setting reduction targets to ensure that the transformational action is aligned with current climate science.
• To keep global temperature increase below 2Â°C compared to pre-industrial temperatures.

### Rationale

• 195 countries signed the Paris Agreement in 2015.
• To limit global temperature rise to below two degrees Celsius.
• Science Based targets needs to take acceleration in the transition to a low carbon economy.

### Significance

• IndiaŐs commitment to generate at least 40 % of its electricity from non-fossil fuel sources.
• Commitment regarding decrease in carbon emission intensity of GDP by 33 to 35 % by 2030.
• Sixteen Indian companies have committed to set science-based targets.
• Commitment is also there from the worldŐs biggest companies that include Kering, Walmart and others.
• Incase 40 % of a companyŐs emissions occur in its supply chain- to commit to reducing those emissions as well as its direct emissions.
• All companies generally operate in a value chain with the potential to rapidly escalate the impact of science-based target setting on global emissions.

### Fingerprint, Face Recognition Data in CCTNs

• Ministry of Home Affairs is planning to link fingerprint, face recognition data to the Crime and Criminal Tracking Network System (CCTNS) .
• The aim of Crime and Criminal Tracking Network System (CCTNS) is to create a comprehensive and integrated system for effective policing through e-Governance.
• A countrywide integrated database on crime incidents and criminals.
• To connect all police stations with their crime and criminal data along with a central database.
• Limited coverage.
• Across the country, 14,500 of 15,500 police stations have been connected.
• For various administrative reasons, Bihar lags behind.

### Current Proposal

• Phase II Proposal- To scale up fingerprint collection from all police stations and link it to CCTNS.
• Plans to connect the Railway Protection ForceŐs stations and their data, apart from the revenue police stations of Uttarakhand.
• To integrate face recognition system and iris scans as well with the CCTNS.
• Help in the civilian verification.
• No central database for offences related to lakhs of motor vehicle offences registered by the transport department.

### Need

• Storing the fingerprint database by the Central Finger Print Bureau (CFPB) .
• Uses Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS) , also called FACTS, for matching fingerprints currently.
• FBI has over 4 crore fingerprints in its database.
• CFPB currently has a database of just over 10 lakh fingerprints.
• Scaling up data collection is an essential prerequisite for better criminal investigations.