Down to Earth 1 to 15 OCT 2019 Part 2 (Download PDF)


Download PDF of This Page (Size: 250.98 K)

26.3 per cent of the cancer cases in western Odisha are from Bargarh, a district with 1.4 million people. The spike in pesticide use was the result of a pest attack that destroyed most of the paddy crop. Pesticides were brought to Bargarh by the farmers of water-starved Andhra Pradesh, who came here for paddy farming. Farmers here use pesticides such as pyrethroid, organophosphate, thiocarbamate and neonicotenide. World Health Organization places these in Class II hazardous category, Class I being the most hazardous. But even Class II pesticides “have severe negative effects on human health and environment, “Pesticides can kill 80 % the pests, but Chakda multiplies fast. A female Chakda gives birth to 250 offspring within just 20 days. The year 2017 had a prolonged summer and delayed winter, which created favourable weather conditions for the pest to multiply.

Cancer Cases

Image shows of Cancer Cases

Image Shows of Cancer Cases

Image shows of Cancer Cases

Image shows of Cancer Cases

Image Shows of Cancer Cases

Image shows of Cancer Cases

Edible Insects

  • Khajuri poka or date palm worm is a delicacy in Odisha’s Rayagada district, inhabited by Khond and Sora tribes – Larva harvest in March & also red ant eggs called kaionda, which is mixed with ragi powder and eaten along with rice.
  • In Nagaland, woodworm or lipa is harvested from oak trees
  • Crickets are rich in calcium
  • Termites in iron
  • Silkworm moth larvae - copper and riboflavin
  • Bees – boost libido
  • Edible insects, which have been a part of several traditional communities the world over, are now in the limelight for their ability to curb greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions
  • Over 1,900 different insect species are eaten world over. In India, as many as 303 insect species are consumed by tribal communities in 10 states
  • EDIBLE INSECT IS being promoted for three major reasons: environmental benefits, nutritional value and livelihood opportunities. On an average, insects can convert 2 kg of feed into 1 kg of insect mass, whereas cattle require 8 kg of feed for 1 kg of body weight gain.
  • pigs produce 10 to 100 times more GHG per kg of weight than mealworms.
  • Most insects possess significant levels of unsaturated fats and omega 3 fats, which are in less quantity in plant-based foods
  • A recent study by industry group Agricultural Biotechnology Council found a third of Britons think they will be eating insects by 2029. “Thirty years ago, eating raw fish in Europe (such as sushi) was considered disgusting. Food habits evolve over time.

Social Movements

  • In India, the environmental activism, which started with the Chipko Movement, has had a Gandhian slant, and it continued even with the Silent Valley protest in Kerala and the Narmada Bachao Andolan in Madhya Pradesh.
  • 18 constructive programmes to build a better India
  • Gandhi also dreamt of a world where there is no poverty, inequality and injustice. Gandhi called it as Sarvodaya Society, an egalitarian society which guarantees to uplift the poorest of the poor
  • Sarvodaya, a concept he borrowed from John Ruskin, Gandhi tried to eliminate the class, caste and gender divisions from society.
  • Gandhi initiated the famous Phoenix Settlement in South Africa to experiment this concept and all his ashrams were the practical laboratories of this continuous experiment.
  • Arne Naess, father of Deep Ecology, thought about a nonmilitary defence which is possible only with international cooperation. Naess suggested Gandhian techniques of non-violent resistance such as non-cooperation, strikes, boycotts, refusal to operate and participation in the existing governmental agencies as the effective techniques of non-military defence.
  • One example is the Zapatista rebellion in Mexico, which, after a violent confrontation with government forces, turned to civilian-based forms of resistance. Its alternative model of organising society—based on the principles of autonomy, participation and public office— is seen as a form of service.
  • In Hind Swaraj, Gandhi envisages swaraj as “self-rule”.
  • Sarvodaya which refers not to “the greatest good of the greatest number”


  • 1986: Central Rural Sanitation Programme launched
  • 1999: Total Sanitation Campaign launched
  • 2012: Total Sanitation Campaign renamed Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan
  • 2014: Swachh Bharat Mission launched
  • Mandi, recognised as the second cleanest district, and visits Kangra for its impressive solid waste management system
  • Uttar Pradesh’s Benda village (region of Bundelkhand) as the Union government prepares to declare the country open defecation free (odf) on October 2, Mahatma Gandhi’s 150th birth anniversary.
  • People here are now learning how to use water judiciously. Though we have both wells and hand pumps, only well water is used for washing and cleaning
  • Dalmau, a historical place in Raebareli district. Three villages in the block—Chak Malik Bhiti, Dalmau and Kahana—dotting the riverbank have received special attention under SBM as well as the Centre’s another flagship programme Namami Gange, and have been identified as Ganga Grams to ensure that excreta from the 2,300 households does not contaminate the waterbody
  • Household sanitation increased from 41.8 % in 2014 to 100 % in 2019
  • The World Bank is supporting Swachh Bharat Mission-Gramin (SBM-G) through a loan of $1.5 billion. This support incentivises states to achieve and sustain the ODF status and improve cleanliness in villages through solid and liquid waste management
  • To initiate behavioural change, 650,000 swachhagrahis were recruited.

- Published/Last Modified on: October 22, 2019


Doorsteptutor material for CLAT GK-Current-Affairs is prepared by worlds top subject experts- fully solved questions with step-by-step exaplanation- practice your way to success.

Developed by: