Education in Rural India (Kurukshetra January 2021) (Download PDF)

Doorsteptutor material for CLAT is prepared by world's top subject experts: fully solved questions with step-by-step explanation- practice your way to success.

Education in Rural India

Schemes for Women and Youth

Schemes for Women and Youth

Samagra Shiksha Scheme

  • An integrated scheme for school education with effect from 2018 - 19.
  • Envisages the school as a continuum from pre-school, primary, upper primary, secondary to senior secondary levels.
  • Subsumes the three centrally sponsored schemes:
    • Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA)
    • Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA)
    • Teacher Education (TE)
  • Bridging gender and social category gaps at all levels of school education.
  • Scheme reaches out to girls and children belonging to SCs, STs, minority communities and transgender.
  • Also gives attention to urban deprived children, children affected by periodic migration and children living in remote and scattered habitations.
  • Giving preference to Special Focus Districts (SFDs) , Educationally Backward Blocks (EEBs) , Left Wing Extremism (LWE) affected districts and aspirational districts.
  • Strengthening of school infrastructure including rural areas.
  • Strengthening of existing govt. schools based on the gaps determined by Unified District Information System for Education (UDISE) .
  • 2020 - 21 Budget Allocations:
    • An outlay of ₹ 9812.09 crore including spill-over for previous years has been estimated for the improvement of school infrastructure.
    • Budgetary allocation for Samagra Shiksha is ₹ 38,751 crore in 2020 - 21 against ₹ 36,322 crore in 2019 - 20.
  • Targeted interventions under Samagra Shiksha:
    • Opening of schools in the neighborhood as defined by the state.
    • Provision of free text-books up to class VIII.
    • Uniforms to all girls and SCT, S-T, BPL boys up to class VIII.
    • Provision of gender segregated toilets in all schools
  • Teachers՚ sensitization programmes to promote girl՚s participation, construction of residential quarters for teachers in remote/hilly areas/in areas with difficult terrain.
  • Provision for twinning of schools.
  • Well-functioning private or govt. schools in urban or semi-urban areas are linked with schools located in rural areas for interaction and exchange of experience.
  • Under the exchange programme, the students from rural schools are brought to schools in urban areas for one week and vice-versa for greater exposure.
  • Implementation of the component of vocational skills training by the Department of School Education and Literacy.
  • Scheme has so far been implemented in 9585 schools with reported enrollment of 11,70, 095 students.
National Means-Cum-Merit Scholarship Scheme
  • Meritorious students belonging to the economically weaker sections.
  • Availing the benefits of scholarship.
  • Parental income from all sources is not more than ₹ 1,50, 000/-per annum.
  • To arrest their dropout at class VIII.
  • Encourage them to continue the study at secondary stage.
  • One lakh fresh scholarship of ₹ 12000/- per annum per student are awarded to selected students of class IX every year.
  • Continuation/renewal in classes X to XII for study in a state government, government aided and local body schools.

Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalayas (JNVs)

  • To provide good quality modern education.
  • Strong component of inculcation of values.
  • Awareness of the environment.
  • Adventure activities and physical education.
  • To talented children predominantly from the rural areas without regard to their family՚s socio-economic condition.
  • Opening of one JNV in each district of the country.
  • Altogether, 642 JNVs have been established in the country so far.

Eklavya Model Residential School (EMRs)

  • Introduced in 1997 - 98.
  • To provide quality, upper primary, secondary, and senior secondary level education.
  • To S-T students in remote areas to enable them to access the best opportunities in education.
  • To bring them at par with the general population.

2018 - 19 Budget Announcement:

  • Every block having 50 % or more S-T population and at least 20,000 S-T persons is to have an EMRS by the year 2022.
  • As on September 10,2020, there are 566 sanctioned schools across the country out of which 285 schools have been made functional.
  • Another 174 new EMRSs will be sanctioned up to the year 2022.
  • Approved construction grant for EMRSs is ₹ 20 crore per school with an additional 20 % for the schools in North East, hilly areas, difficult areas, and areas affected by LWE.
  • Recurring grant in case of EMRS and EMDBS (Eklavya Model Day Boarding School) is respectively ₹ 1.09 lakh and ₹ 0.85 lakh per student per annum.
  • Total budget allocation for EMRS during 2020 - 21 is ₹ 1313.23 crore.

Mid-Day Meal Scheme

  • Targeted at young children studying up to Class VIII.
  • Most successful programmes for keeping young children from disadvantaged sections like poor, Dalits, tribal, girls and children of labor work force in schools.

NSS 71st round:

  • 70 % children studying in class 1 to VIII in govt. and aided schools.
  • Special Training Centers (STCs) and madras as and maqtabs supported under Samagra Shiksha get nutritious mid-day meals in rural areas.
  • Approximately 11.59 crore children in around 11.5 lakh schools benefit daily.
  • State governments and UT administrations are providing Food Security Allowance (FSA) comprising food grains, pulses, oil, etc. , (equivalent to cooking cost) to all eligible children till such time their schools are closed due to the pandemic.

Targeted Intervention for Girls

  • Various targeted interventions are made for girls.
  • Also includes those in educationally backward blocks (EBBs) .

Interventions include:

  • Opening schools in the neighborhood as defined by the state.
  • Provision of free text-books to girls up to Class VIII.
  • Uniforms to all girls up to Class VIII.
  • Gender segregated toilets in all schools.
  • Teachers՚ sensitization programmes to promote girls՚ participation.
  • Provision for self-defense training for the girls from classes to VI to XII.
  • Stipend to CWSN girls from Class 1 to Class XII.
  • Construction of residential quarters for teachers in remote/hilly areas/in areas with difficult terrain.

Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya՚s

  • Sanctioned in Educationally Backward Blocs (EBBs) under Samagra Shiksha.
  • Residential schools from class VI to XII for girls belonging to disadvantaged groups such as SC, S-T, OBC, Minority and BPL.
  • 143 NEW KGBVs have been sanctioned in the last three years.
  • At present 4881 KGBVs are functional with total enrolment of 6,18, 138 girls out of which 3,30, 238 (53.2 %) are girls belonging to SCT/S-T communities.
  • A total of 830 KGBVs have been upgraded up to Senior Secondary level under Samagra Shiksha.

Beti Bachao Beti Padhao

  • Works to develop an enabling environment for girl child education.
  • Addresses the issues relating to declining Child Sex Ratio (CSR) .
  • Aims to change the mindset of people to make them appreciate the value of girl child.
  • It is a tri-ministerial, convergent effort of Ministries of Women and Child Development, Health and Family Welfare and Human Resource Development.
  • Specific objectives of the scheme:
    • Prevent gender biased sex selective elimination.
    • Ensure survival and protection of the girl child.
    • Ensure education and participation of the girl child.
  • Biggest impact in rural India.
  • Does not enroll girls for any type of benefits from any segment of the society including rural areas.
  • Funds released to 640 districts with special focus on the 405 gender critical districts worst in CSR, by Ministry of Women and Child Development.
  • Development to implement the multi-sectoral and district level activities viz. inter-sectoral consultation, meetings of district task force, block level committees, innovation and outreach, information education and communication materials, awareness kit to anganwadi centers, monitoring, evaluation and documentation of the scheme, health, and education related activities, etc.
  • The sex ratio at birth (parameter for monitoring the progress of the scheme) has shown an improvement of 16 points at national level from 918 (2014 - 15) to 934 (2019 - 20) .

Mahila Shakti Kendra Scheme

  • A centrally sponsored scheme approved in November 2020.
  • Ministry of Women and Child Development.
  • To empower rural women through community participation.
  • To facilitate inter-sectoral convergence of schemes and programmes meant for women both at the Central and State/UT level.
  • Envisages community engagement through College Student Volunteers in 115 aspirational districts as part of block level initiatives.
  • District Level Centre for Women in 640 districts to facilitate women centric schemes.
  • To provide a foothold for Beti Bachao Beti Padhao scheme.
  • State Resource Centre for Women to support respective governments.
  • Capacity building of women collectives is envisaged in collaboration with non-governmental organizations (NGOs) /Cooperatives societies/Krishi Vigyan Kendra in not more than 50 % of the MSK blocks in the 115 aspirational districts.
  • Till June 2019,31 States/UTs have been given the approval to implement the scheme.
  • SRCWs and DLCW were functional in 26 States/UTs and 113 districts respectively.

District level activities were approved for:

  • 220 districts in Phase 1 (2017 - 18) .
  • 220 districts in Phase 2 (2018 - 19)
  • Remaining 200 districts in Phase 3 (2019 - 20) .

Saakshar Bharat Programme

  • Operational till March 2018 went beyond the ‘3’ R՚s (Reading, Writing and Arithmetic) .
  • It also sought to create awareness of social disparities.
  • A person՚s deprivation on the means for its amelioration and general well-being.
  • Formulated in 2009.
  • Objective of achieving 80 % literacy at national level.
  • Focusing on adult women literacy seeking to reduce the gap between male and female literacy to not more than 10 % points.
  • Around 7.64 crore learners successfully passed the biannual Basic Literacy Assessment Tests.
  • Conducted by National Institute of Schooling between August, 2010 to March, 2018.
  • Were certified as literates with 5.38 crore females and 2.26 crore males.

Padhna Likhna Abhiyaan

  • Rolled out to replace Saakshar Bharat Scheme.
  • Launched by Prime Minister of India on Literacy Day.
  • Achieving 100 % literacy by 2030.
  • Massive literacy projects will be launched in the tribal and forest areas, prisons, slums, etc.
  • Technology as a facilitator.
  • Focus on basic literacy component in a four-month cycle among adults.
  • Govt. think tank, NITI Aayog has underlined 112 aspirational districts.

Skills Training in Higher Education

  • The National Education Policy 2020.
  • Envisages that the school curricula and pedagogy will aim for holistic development of learners.
  • Equipping learners with key 21st century skills and reduction in curricular content.
  • To enhance essential learning and critical thinking.
  • Integration between vocational and academic streams in all schools and higher education institutions in a phased manner.
  • Vocational education will start in school from the 6th grade and will include internship.

Scheme for Higher Education Youth in Apprenticeship and Skills (SHREYAs)

  • Launched in 2019.
  • Aims to cover 50 lakh students by 2022.
  • By providing ‘on the job work exposure’ and stipend.
  • SHREYAS is a programme conceived for students in degree courses, primarily non-technical.
  • With a view to introduce employable skills into their learning.
  • Promote apprenticeship as integral to education.
  • Amalgamate employment facilitating efforts of the Govt. into the education system.
  • Clear pathways towards employment opportunities during and after their graduation.

National Apprenticeship Training Scheme (NATs)

  • Instituted by Board of Apprenticeship Training/Practical Training, Ministry of Human Resource Development.
  • Provides skill training to fresh graduates, diploma holders in Engineering & Technology and Plus 2 vocational passouts.
  • 126 subject fields for graduate/diploma students for which one-year training is provided.
  • In 2019,51784 graduates were and 37886 diploma holders were trained.
  • The govt. has also proposed to integrate apprenticeship embedded degree programmes to give impetus to vocational training.
  • Accordingly, UGC has issued Apprenticeship/internship embedded degree programme guidelines.

Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKKY)

  • Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship.
  • Year 2016 - 20.
  • To provide skill to one crore people under Short Term Training (STT) .
  • Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) .
  • Across the country for four years i.e.. , 2016 - 20 with an outlay of ₹ 12,000 crore.
  • Post placement support of ₹ 1500/-per month per trainee is applicable.
  • For special groups including women for 2 - 3 months post training depending on placement within or outside the district of the domicile of the candidate.


  • Current public (Central Govt. and State Govt.) expenditure on education in India has been around 4.43 % of GDP (Analysis of Budgeted Expenditure 2017 - 18) .
  • Around 10 % of the total govt. spending towards education (Economic Survey 2017 - 18) .
  • Centre and States will work together to increase the public investment in education sector to reach 6 % of GDP at the earliest as per NEP 2020.

- Published/Last Modified on: April 13, 2021

Education, Economy, Kurukshetra, Women/Minority Empowerment

Developed by: