Elimination of Malaria (Download PDF)

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The Union Health Ministry and Family Welfare for first time has unveiled National Strategic Plan (NSP) for Malaria Elimination (2017 - 22). It has set malaria elimination deadline as 2027, three years ahead of the global deadline. The NSP is based on 2016 National Framework for Malaria Elimination framed with support of WHO’s Global Technical Strategy for Malaria, 2016 - 2030.

Image of Malaria In India

Image of Malaria In India

Image of Malaria In India

Features of the National Strategic Plan (NSP) for Malaria Elimination.

  • The NSP is a year-wise roadmap for malaria elimination across the country. The plan aims to achieve universal case detection and treatment services in malaria endemic districts to ensure 100 % diagnosis of all suspected cases, and full treatment of all confirmed cases. It seeks to maintain a malaria- free status for areas where transmission has been interrupted.

Categorization of Districts

The plan divides country into four categories, from 0 to 3 based on their annual parasite incidence (API). The first category, Zero has 75 districts having of API of malaria for the last three years.

  • The Category 1 covers 448 districts, in which the API is less than 1 per 1000 population.

  • The Category 2 covers 48 districts, in which API is one and above, but less than 2 per 1, 000 population.

  • The Category 3 covers 107 districts, in which API of two and above per 1, 000 population.

Targets

  • The plan aims to eliminate malaria (zero indigenous cases) in all Category 1 and 2 districts by 2022.

  • In Category 3, the target is bring remaining districts under a pre-elimination and elimination program by 2022.

Four Components of National Strategic Plan (NSP) for Malaria Elimination, based on WHO Recommendations:

  • Diagnosis and case management;

  • Surveillance and epidemic response;

  • Prevention — integrated vector management

  • Cross-cutting interventions, which include communication, advocacy, R&D and other initiatives

Funding for National Strategic Plan (NSP)

The resources required for the elimination of malaria is around Rs. 10, 653.16 crore over a period of five years (2017 - 2022). These resources will be managed from government sources, international donors, and the corporate sector as part of corporate social responsibility (CSR) Significance of National Strategic Plan (NSP)

  • This is for the first time; the Union Health Ministry has come up with a roadmap for elimination of malaria in the country. Prior to it, effort was to “control” malaria under the National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDC).

  • The NSP lays down detailed strategy with operational guidelines for all states towards set targets. It has also given a detailed breakdown of annual budgetary requirements over five years.

Background on Malaria

  • Malaria is a vector borne disease caused by parasitic protozoans belonging to the Plasmodium type. It is most commonly transmitted by an infected female Anopheles mosquito. According to the World Malaria Report 2016, India accounts for 89 % of the incidence of malaria in the South-East Asia region.

Malaria in India and Distribution

  • In India, malaria is caused by the parasites Plasmodium falciparum (Pf), found more in the forest areas and Plasmodium Vivax (Pv), more common in the plains. Most malaria cases are mainly concentrated in tribal and remote areas of the country.

  • The majority of malaria reporting districts are in India’s eastern and central parts. Six states — Odisha (40%), Jharkhand (20%), Chhattisgarh (20%). Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram (5 - 7%) report most of the malaria cases in India. These states, along with tribal areas of Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra account for 90 % of India’s malaria burden

Interventions for Malaria

Interventions that are being strengthened are as follows:

  • Early diagnosis and complete treatment

  • Case based surveillance and rapid response

  • Integrated Vector Management

  • Indoor Residual Spray (IRS)

  • Long Lasting Insecticidal Nets (LLINs) / secticide-treated Nets (ITNs)

  • Larval Source Management (LSM)

  • Epidemic Preparedness and Early Response

  • Monitoring & Evaluation

  • Advocacy, coordination and Partnerships

  • Behavior Change Communication (BCC) and Community Mobilization

  • Program Planning and management.

- Published/Last Modified on: June 21, 2018

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