Employment and Self-Employment - Yojana September 2018 Summary (Part - 1) (Download PDF)


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Key Topics included in this Article: Atal Innovation Mission (ATM), Pradhan Mantri Awaas Yojana-Gramin (PMAY-G), Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS), National Institute of Public Finance & Policy (NIPFP).

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Employment and Self-Employment - Yojana September 2018 (In English)

Dr. Manishika Jain in this lecture explains Employment and Self-Employment - Yojana September 2018

  • National Food Security Act (NASA)
  • National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC)

  • Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana (DAY)

  • Ministry of Housing & Urban Affairs (MoHUA)

  • Atal Mission for Rejuvenation & Urban Transformation (AMRUT)

  • National Council on Vocational Training (NCVT)

  • Employees’ Provident Fund Organisation (EPFO)

  • Employees’ State Insurance Corporation (ESIC)

  • Ministry of Labour & Employment (MoLE)

  • Pradhan Mantri Rojgar Protsahan Yojana (PMRPY)

  • Labour Market Information System (LMIS)

  • National Scheduled Caste/Scheduled Tribe Hub (NSSH)

  • Micro Units Development Refinance Agency (MUDRA)

Forthcoming Issue: Women Empowerment

  • “We want our Youth to be job creators & not job seekers”.
  • National Manufacturing Policy estimates potential of this sector to provide employment for 100million people by2022.

Credible Employment Data: Need of the Hour

  • 80%of employment unorganised sector

  • Quality of jobs on offer & remuneration packages available for new employment often not in sync w/aspirations of our young jobseekers.

  • Given low female labour force participation of 27-30% (which is matter of concern), total number of jobseekers per year comes to around 8 million.

  • 10-12 million people enter job market every year.

Credible Employment Data

  • Annual Labour Survey by Labour Bureau was last conducted for 2015 - 16.
  • Employment Generation: Estimates

Payroll Reporting

  • First time in India, effort towards payroll reporting, which measures number of formal jobs & its increase on monthly basis.

  • 41 Lakh formal jobs created from 2017 to 2018.

Unorganised Sector

  • India based cab-hailing service Ola 37,000 registered partner drivers across 20 cities in 2014, which grew more than 1 million-registered driver partners across 110 Indian cities, in 2018 Uber had over 1.2 million registered partner drivers in Indian cities.

  • Services like Urban Clap & Quirk Services individually have more than 2.5 million professionals registered on their portals.

  • Goods road transport sector had about 8.1 million registered goods transfer trucks in 2013 about0.7million new trucks added each year leading to more than 12 million trucks on Indian roads at present.

  • Conservative estimate of about7to 8.5 million new jobs generated in country over last two years.


MUDRA covers: 👌

  • Shishu: covering loans up to Rs. 50,000

  • Kishore: covering loans above Rs. 50,000 & up to Rs. 5 lakhs

  • Tarun: covering loans above Rs. 5 lakh & up to Rs. 10lakhs.

Success Story

  • Nivedita, a lady from Ludhiana was running her garment business w/single sewing machine. After taking MUDRA loan, she has expanded her business to 10 sewing machines providing jobs to 10people in her locality.

Using Payroll Reporting

  • 2.5Crore people attain age of 21 annually today & will do so for next 20 years as well.

  • Labour participation rate among 2.5 crore people estimated at 60%, i. e. 1.5 crore people enter labour force every year.

  • Social security in India provided by 3 organisations: EPFO, ESIC, & NPS (NPS specific to govt. employees).

  • Total employment created thru three professions around 1.08 crore, assuming 20 jobs per CA practice, 5jobs medical practice, & 3 jobs per law practice.

  • Stock of jobs w/I transport industry extrapolated around 3.6 crores in India.

  • Agriculture contributes to creation of around43% of these jobs, bringing workforce in industry & services to around 28.5 crore.

Employment in India – An Improving Picture

  • NSSO survey conducted every five years.

Job Growth in India – Historical Record

  • B/w 1999 - 00 & 2004 - 05, jobs increased at rapid pace of2.4% year, or average annual job gain of9.7million jobs.
  • Employment Expansion Policies
  • GDP growth of 5.8% in construction in FY18 largest in last six years.

‘Private’ Estimates of Job Growth

  • First estimate of job gain in 2018 when they estimated that7million non-farm sector jobs created; latest estimate (July 2018) minimum of 10 million jobs created in FY18.

  • Third, estimate provided by Tirtha Das - estimate job growth of 12.8 million in FY18.

Demography In India’s Favour

  • National fertility rate now at replacement levels (2.1 children per woman) & population growth rate declined to just 1.1%a year, from 1.8%level two decades earlier.

  • Over next six years, estimated that education enrollment increased from 101 million in 2011 - 12 to 112 million in 2017.

Innovation & Entrepreneurship keys to Employment

  • Unemployment rates shown increasing trend w/rise in educational qualification viz. at 18.4%highest for those w/Graduate & above level education & at 3 % lowest for w/up to primary level education.

  • Atal Innovation Mission; Focus on Women Entrepreneurship; Mudra; Start up India & stand up India impacting availability of jobs & livelihood opportunities for millions in rural & urban sector even w/low skills.

  • School-based learning widely combined w/work based learning. Examples of dual system can found in Austria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Hungary, Netherlands, Slovak Republic & Switzerland.

  • MHRD looking ways to add up to 1,000 hours of ‘professional’ component to undergraduate programmes.

  • Atal Tinkering Labs encouraging students develop habit of innovative thinking & obtain transferable practical skills.

  • National Apprenticeship Program to ensure students has hands on training for better local requirements.

Which sectors have potential of creating maximum employment?

  • Areas of Big Data Analytics, Artificial Automation, Internet of Things, Cloud Computing & Virtual Reality, Block Chain & Electric Vehicles create highly skilled & high paid jobs in future.

How is Atal Innovation Mission helping in creating better employment opportunities in country? 📝

  • Atal Innovation Mission (ATM) flagship initiative of GoI under auspices of NITI Aayog to create ecosystem of innovation & entrepreneurship across country enable creation of job creators.

  • To date 5441 ATL labs selected across 650+ districts across India, 101+ incubators each of whom spawn 25-30 innovative tech driven startups every 18 month & nurtured, to success, & 24+ Atal New India challenges.

Labour Intensive Growth

  • Post- 1991, compliance costs not increased. If at all, they declined. (One should mention Shram Suvidha portal. )

  • Phenomenon of labour contractors who are not registered also known. One should mention National Career Service portal.

  • Education, publicly or privately funded, encourages higher salary expectations, but skills education delivers not worth price, according to market perceptions.

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Employment and Self-Employment - Yojana September 2018 (In Hindi)

Dr. Manishika Jain in this lecture explains Employment and Self-Employment - Yojana September 2018

👌 implies important for Objective Questions/MCQ

📝 implies important for Subjective Questions

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- Published/Last Modified on: September 27, 2018


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