Employment and Self-Employment - Yojana September 2018 Summary (Part - 2) (Download PDF)


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Livelihood Development & Diversification: Income & Employment thru livelihood Development & Diversification clearly way forward. Over 9 lakh solar lamps assembled by nearly 4000Women SHG members in remote regions of Bihar, UP, Jharkhand, Rajasthan, etc.

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Employment and Self-Employment - Yojana September 2018 (In English)

Dr. Manishika Jain in this lecture explains Employment and Self-Employment - Yojana September 2018

Image of Antyodaya Mission

Image of Antyodaya Mission

Image of Antyodaya Mission

Additional sources of funds for addressing rural poverty.

  • 👌 Under Pradhan Mantri Awaas Yojana-Gramin (PMAY-G), instead of 75: 25 sharing earlier, it became 60: 40 leveraging total of Rs. 45,000 Crore in3 years as state share, against GoI provision of Rs. 81,975 crore.

  • Resources mobilised thru extra Budgetary Resources (EBRs) as well.

  • Transfer of funds under 14th Finance Commission awards registered significant increase.

     Image of NRLM

    Image of NRLM

    Image of NRLM

  • Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS) focused on durable assets & water conservation, & provided for livelihood generating individual benefits like farm ponds, dug wells, goat shed, poultry shed, housing support, & support for dairy shed.

  • Employment supporting initiatives over last 3 years as follows:

  • 143 Lakh hectares of land provided benefit of water conservation works.

  • 15 Lakh farm ponds & 4 lakh wells for irrigation besides large number of water conservation community structures came up during this period.

  • Over 6222 Custom Hiring Centres managed by women SHGs fully functional during this period.

  • 11000 Bank Sakhis & 773 Bank Mitras trained as Banking Correspondents (BCs) from among SHG Women.

  • 33 Lakh women farmers supported under non-chemical based agro ecological interventions.

  • 👌 National Institute of Public Finance & Policy (NIPFP) requested to assess impact of PMAY-G on income & employment Report found that “By using information about completed & under construction houses since 2016 - 17 that is made available thru AwaasSoft & by MoRD, we estimate that scheme could generated about 52.47 crore person-days. Of this nearly 20.85 crore person-days for skilled labour & remaining 31.62 crore person-days for unskilled labour force in both years.

  • On average one-fourth of total cost of construction of rural roads contributes to employment of skilled, semi-skilled, & unskilled wage earners.

  • Central Govt. annual allocation increased to Rs. 19000 crore over last 3 years able to leverage Rs. 8000 crore to Rs. 9000 crore as state share.

  • Person-days generated under MGNREGS in last 3 years in range of 235 crore every year.

  • Expansion of National Food Security Act (NFSA) w/provision of rice at Rs. 3 per kg & wheat at Rs. 2 per kg facilitated food security in poor households.

Poverty of Households

  • Lack of education & skills

  • Under nutrition & ill-health

  • Lack of employment opportunities

  • Assetlessness

  • Lack of safe housing

  • Limited access to public services

  • Clutches of middlemen/corruption/moneylender

  • Absence of social capital-collectives of women/youth/poor households

Poverty of Geographies

  • Low Price for produce distress

  • Violence/crime

  • Unirrigated agri/vagaries of monsoon

  • Lack of basic infra-roads, electricity, Internet

  • Lack of access to markets & jobs

  • Lack of non-farm opportunities

Creating Livelihood Opportunities in Urban Areas

  • As per Census, 2011, over 31% of total population lived in urban areas & estimates suggest that will rise to over 50% by 2050. Cities increase in number & existing cities become larger & denser, pressure to support livelihoods keep mounting.

Developing skills Ecosystem

  • National Skill Development Policy released in 2009 & National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC) established w/mandate to skill 150 million people by 2022.

  • Skill India Mission revised target upwards & now aims to train 400 million people by 2022.

  • Global Findex Report released by World Bank earlier, revealed number of account holders risen from 35% of adults in 2011 & 53% in 2014 to 80% in 2017.

  • Gender gap in account ownership decreased w/ 83% of men & 77%women now having an account.

  • 👌 Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana- National Urban Livelihoods Mission (NULM) launched as flagship schemes of Ministry of Housing & Urban Affairs (MoHUA). Other flagship urban missions viz. Swachh Bharat Mission- Urban (SBM-U), Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana-Urban (PMAY-U), Smart City Mission (SCM), Atal Mission for Rejuvenation & Urban Transformation (AMRUT) & Heritage City Development & Augmentation Yojana (HRIDAY) complement DAY-NULM by creating sustainable employment opportunities.

Multi-dimensional Livelihoods Strategies

  • Employment thru Skill Training & Placement (ESTP) component of Mission provides market relevant skill training & placement under Skill India Mission.
 Image of Nulm

Image of Nulm

Image of Nulm

SHG federations supporting livelihoods, Ambikapur, Chhatisgarh

  • “Garbage to Gold” initiative in Ambikapur is aimed at transition from corporation-driven to community-driven waste management system. More than 500 women organized into SHGs engaged in door-to-door waste collection (D2DC), & operation of solid & Liquid Resource Management (SLRM) centres cross-city. 👌

  • Support for Urban Street Vendors Component of Mission seeks to protect livelihoods of street venders as per provisions of Street Vendors Act, 2014 under this component, , more than 8 lakh ID cards issued to street vendors.

City Livelihoods Centre, Jaipur, Rajasthan

  • Jaipur CLC set example, thru their innovative marketing activities to promote microenterprises led by SHG women.
  • Employment thru Skill Training & Placement
  • ESTP offers courses in Modular Employable Skills (MES) framework under Director General of Training (DGT) w/I which courses approved by National Council on Vocational Training (NCVT).

Mission Evaluation & New Initiatives

  • Mechanism to get direct feedback from trained candidates introduced, called PARAS (Personalized Rapid Assessment System) , which helping States to assess & improve their training programs.

  • A ranking system called SPARK introduced to induce competition among states based on outcome parameters of Mission.

Recognizing & Addressing Key Risks

MoHUA three national challenges addressed by Mission:

  • Informal nature of employment

  • Lower participation of women in labour force

  • Capacity constraints of implementation

Formalizing Urban Informal Workforce

  • Further 77 % of workers in India likely to be in ‘vulnerable employment’ by 2019.

  • DAY-NULM addressing their challenge thru two initiatives. First, Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) adopted in convergence w/Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY), mechanism to recognize, certify, & formalize those who have acquired skills informally.

  • City Livelihoods Centres (CLCs) which supposed to established in all cities under DAY-NULM revitalized, w/renewed focus on creating a robust database of freelance service providers, making their services available thru mobile apps etc.

Urban Building Capacity of Local Bodies (ULBs)

  • Ministry launched Integrated Capacity Building Program (ICBP) to build their capacities for implementing urban missions including employment & self-employment programs sensitizing them to vulnerabilities of urban poor.

Accelerating the Pace

  • Ministry of Labour & Employment (MoLE) plays pivotal role in facilitating employment related services & protecting interests & welfare of employees.

  • Public Employment Service in India transformed thru NCS platform to bring together jobseekers, employers, & training providers on common platform thru efficient use of information technology.

  • One hundred & seven (107) Model Career Centres (MCCs) set up & additional hundred (100) centres planned established in future. MCCs converge technology & counselling by young professionals at centres to facilitate job seekers to select jobs best suited to their ability.

  • In order to economically mainstream differently abled persons, Ministry of Labour & employment established 21 NCSs in different parts of country.

  • Directorate General of Employment (DGE) implements schemes for welfare of SCs/STs job seekers thru coaching, vocational guidance, & training.

  • Shram Suvidha Portal facilities inspection of establishments in scientific & transparent manner it provides for common registration under Employees’ Provident Fund Organisation (EPFO) & Employees’ State Insurance Corporation (ESIC) & facilities submission of monthly Electronic-Cum-Challan (ECR) ministry reduced 56 registers required to be maintained under 9 central labour laws & rules made into5 common register which would result in saving of time & cost of compliance.

  • Ministry working on simplification, amalgamation & rationalization of multiple existing Acts into four Labour Codes, viz. , Code on Wages, Code on Social Security, Code on Industrial Relations & Code on Occupational Safety, Health & Working Conditions. Code on wages introduced in Lok Sabha in 2017 provide flexibility in hiring workforce as per seasonal requirement & enable meeting of targets including export obligations by enterprise.

  • “Pradhan Mantri Rojgar Protsahan Yojana (PMRPY) “ implementing from 2016 - 17 w/objective of incentivizing industry for promoting employment generation.

  • Govt. paying 8.33% contribution of EPS in respect of new employees having new Universal Account Number (UAN) & earning up to Rs. 15,000 per month for period of three years from date of registration, w/aim to create employment large number of informal workers.

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Employment and Self-Employment - Yojana September 2018 (In Hindi)

Dr. Manishika Jain in this lecture explains Employment and Self-Employment - Yojana September 2018

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- Published/Last Modified on: September 27, 2018


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