# Expected Most Important Topics for UPSC - 2018 (Part - 10) (Download PDF)

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India and African Continent - India and South Africa are celebrating 20 years of strategic partnership this year. 2 decades of fruitful cooperation in trade, science, technology and development spanning across the knowledge chain resulted in robust networking of institutions.

## Calcutta Convention of 1890 (Important): Indian-China Dhok La Dispute

• Historically, maps were vague and were not to be relied upon.

• The Survey of India established in 1767 developed best maps for Asia.

• However, maps have a margin of error due to projection of 3D data on a-two dimensional scale.

• Topographic indicators are thus used to make maps more specific, for example, parts of the US-Mexico border are delineated by the river Rio Grande.

• However, river changing its course produces distortions in the map.

## Panchsheel Agreement between Indian and China

• Historically, India and China have had relations for more than 2,000 years, but the modern relationship began in 1950 when India was among the first countries to end formal ties with the Republic of China (Taiwan) recognize the PRC as the legitimate government of Mainland China.

• The Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence:

• Mutual respect for each other’s territorial integrity and sovereignty.

• Mutual non-aggression.

• Mutual non-interference in each other’s internal affairs.

• Equality and cooperation for mutual benefit.

• Peaceful co-existence.