Expected Most Important Topics for UPSC - 2018 (Part - 23) (Download PDF)

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Delimitation: The constitution was amended to freeze the delimitation till 2026, This led to a situation where many states have representation in parliament that is disproportionate to their population.

  • Delimitation literally means the act of fixing the boundaries of constituencies.

  • Important provisions: Article 82, Article 170

How did the present problem evolve?

  • Government suspended delimitation in 1976 until 2000.

  • This is done for the reason that the states’ family planning programs would not affect their political representation in the LokSabha.

  • 84th Constitution Amendment, Act 2001 extended deadline from 2000 to 2026.

  • Later, delimitation based on the 2001 census was done.

  • As a result increasing populations are being represented by a single representative.

National Bank for Agriculture & Rural Development (Amendment) Bill, 2017

  • Lok Sabha passed National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (Amendment) Bill, 2017.

  • Bill seeks to amend NABARD Act, 1981.

  • NABARD is responsible for providing and regulating facilities like credit for agricultural and industrial development in rural areas.

  • NABARD is an apex development financial institution in India.

  • Features of Bill:

    • Increase in capital of NABARD

    • Transfer of the RBI’s share to Union government

    • Adds Micro, small and medium enterprises (MSME) terms

Don’t Criminalise Martial Rape, May Disturb Institution of Marriage: Government

  • Central government took a stand against criminalising marital rape, in its affidavit to the Delhi High Court, on the ground.

  • It may destabilise institution of marriage apart from being an easy tool for harassing the husbands.

  • Section 375 of the IPC dealing with rape makes an exception.

Important data:

  • Lot of data for National Family Health Survey (NFHS) 4, was carried out in 2015 - 16, has released, information on sexual violence has been withheld.

  • Only 0.6 % of sexual violence committed by husbands was reported to the police.

  • More than 4 in 10 women, experienced physical or sexual violence felt that wife - beating was justified under various excuses.

Recommendations: Justice Srikrishna Committee on Institutionalization of Arbitration Mechanism

  • High Level Committee, under the Chairmanship of Justice B. N. Srikrishna, to review institutionalization of arbitration mechanism and suggest reforms thereto has submitted its report.

  • Key Recommendations:

    • Arbitration Promotion Council of India (APCI)

    • Specialist Arbitration Bench

    • Changes in Arbitration and Conciliation Act

    • National Litigation Policy (NLP)

    • International Centre for Alternate Dispute Redressal (ICADR)

International Centre for Alternate Dispute Redressal (ICADR)

  • ICADR is an autonomous organization working under the aegis of the Ministry of Law & Justice, Govt. of India.

  • Headquarters at New Delhi and Regional Centres at Hyderabad and Bangalore.

  • Regional Centres of ICADR are fully funded and supported by respective State Governments.

  • It necessary to provide a new forum and procedure for resolving international and domestic disputes quickly.

  • The Chief Justice of India is Patron of ICADR.

Government to Allow NRIs to Vote in the Lok Sabha and Assembly Elections through a Proxy

  • Union cabinet recently approved proposal to change the electoral laws to allow NRIs to vote in Lok Sabha and assembly elections through a proxy.

  • Earlier, this was permitted only to service personnel.

  • Overseas electors will have to appoint a nominee afresh for each election.

  • One person can act as proxy for only one overseas vote.

  • Currently, voters residing abroad can only cast their votes in their respective constituencies.

360-Degree Rating System

  • Parliamentary standing committee criticized new 360-degree rating system for the bureaucrats proposed as one of major administrative reform by the government.

  • 360 - degree approach: It is a new multi - source feedback system for performance appraisal of bureaucrats started by current government for future postings.

  • Currently, performance of civil servants is assessed through Annual Confidential Report (ACR) prepared by superior authority.

  • It is a method of Performance appraising.

Advertisement Standards Council of India (ASCI)

  • Misleading Advertisements in Electronic Media.

  • The complaints received through online portal GAMA are processed by Advertisement Standards Council of India (ASCI) based on an MoU signed with the Department of Consumer Affairs.

  • Advertising Standards Council of India (ASCI) is self - regulatory voluntary organization of the advertising industry in India.

  • It is a non - Government body.

Article 35A:

  • Supreme Court hearing a PIL petition challenging constitutional validity of Article 35A.

  • Article 35A gave protection to existing laws in force in the State.

  • Article 35A of the Indian Constitution empowers J&K state’s legislature to define permanent residents of the state.

  • It provides special rights and privileges to those permanent residents.

Law Commission Released DNA Based Technology (Use and Regulation) Bill, 2017

  • It aims to prevent misuse of DNA technology by regulating and standardizing DNA testing as well as supervising the activities of all authorized laboratories.

  • It will allow government to establish National DNA Data Bank and DNA Profiling Board.

  • Features of Bill:

    • Establishing new institutions

    • Mandatory consent

    • Option for deletion of data

    • Rights to an under trial

    • Penalties

Jharkhand Religious Independence Bill, 2017

  • Jharkhand cabinet approved Jharkhand Religious Independence Bill, 2017.

  • This bill forbids religious conversion through allurement or coercion.

  • If the crime involved a minor, a woman or a person from SC/ST community, the prison term would be up to 4 years and penalty of Rs. 1 lakh.

  • Those converting willingly will have to inform the district administration or they are liable to face action.

  • Section 3 of the Bill prohibits forceful conversion.

Consensus on NCBC Bill

  • Constitution (123rd Amendment) Bill, 2017 providing for setting up of a National Commission for Backward Classes.

  • It was recently passed by the Rajya Sabha after dropping Clause 3.

About Clause 3:

  • Pertains to the insertion of new article 338B.

  • The bill is meant to upgrade Backward Classes Commission from a statutory body to constitutional body.

  • Bill proposes:

    • Insertion of a new Clause (26C) under Article 366

    • Insertion of provision after Articles 341 and 342.

    • Repeal of National Commission for Backward Classes Act, 1993, and Rules framed there under.

    • Dissolution of the Commission constituted under the Act of 1993.

    • Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment will get constitutional status.

CBFC Board Reconstituted

  • In exercise of the powers conferred by:

    • sub - section (1) of section 3 of the Cinematograph Act, 1952

    • Cinematograph (Certification) Rules, 1983

  • Central Government reconstituted the existing Central Board of Film Certification for period of 3 years or until further orders, whichever is earlier.

  • New board will be headed by Sh. Prasoon Josh.

Central Board of Film Certification (CBFC):

  • It is a statutory censorship and classification body under Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India.

Portal Pencil

  • PENCIL: Platform for Effective Enforcement for No Child Labour

  • It is an electronic platform for no child labour developed by Labour Ministry.

  • Aims: To connect the Centre to state government, district and to all project so, cities for effective implementation of NCLP.

  • Portal has a component of child tracking system.

  • Portal creates a robust implementing and monitoring mechanism for enforcement of the legislative provisions of National Child Labour Policy (NCLP).

Jan Sampark

  • It is a monthly programme to facilitate adoption.

  • Organized by Ministry of Women and Child Development (MoWCD).

  • Central Adoption Resource Authority (CARA) under MoWCD is the nodal authority.

  • The first of its kind programme was held recently in New Delhi.

  • Programme enables public to have interaction with its officials and staff for seeking information related to Adoption.

National Institution Ranking Framework (NIRF) for 2018

  • NIRF for 2018 announced by the centre with a change.

  • NIRF ranking was started in 2016, ranks higher educational institutions in India on the basis of a variety of parameters.

  • 2016 and 2017 NIRF lists reflected the ranks of only those institutions that had taken part in the exercise.

  • For 2018, instead of institutions choosing to take part in the exercise, they are being auto registered through large online database.

  • All - India Survey on Higher Education (AISHE) portal of institutions available with Ministry of Human Resource Development.

  • It will be used for auto registration of institutions.

Citizenship for Chakma and Hajong Refugees

  • GoI announced that it will grant citizenship to all chakma and hajong refugees living in north east.

  • Also, government ensured that the rights of the indigenous people are not diluted.

  • Chakmas and Hajongs originally residents of Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh (erstwhile East Pakistan).

  • They left their homeland when it was submerged by the Kaptai dam project near Chittagong, Bangladesh, in 1960s.

  • Centre moved majority of them to the North East Frontier Agency, which is now Arunachal Pradesh.

  • Chakmas, who are Buddhists, and Hajongs, who are Hindus.

West Bengal to Bangle

  • West Bengal cabinet approved changing State’s name to Bangla.

  • West Bengal be named Bangla in Bengali, Bangal in Hindi and Bengal in English.

  • Centre rejected the proposal of having 3 names in 3 different languages and state is compelled to have Bangla as the new name.

  • According to the Indian Constitution, the power of changing the name of the State lies with the Centre.

  • Article 3 of the Constitution deals with the formation of new States and alteration of areas, boundaries or names of existing States.

Divyang Sarathi

  • Government launched ‘Divyang Sarathi’.

  • The accessible and comprehensive mobile application for easy dissemination of information to ‘Divyangjans’.

  • According to the Census 2011,

    • There are over 2.68 crore ‘Divyangjans’ in India.

    • It constitutes more than 2.2 % of the population.

  • This mobile application aims at providing all relevant information relating to the Department of Empowerment of Persons with Disabilities (DEPwD).

- Published/Last Modified on: June 10, 2018

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Monthy-updated, fully-solved, large current affairs-2019 question bank(more than 2000 problems): Quickly cover most-important current-affairs questions with pointwise explanations especially designed for IAS, NTA-NET, Bank-PO and other competetive exams.