Expected Questions for Computers, IT & Geography - 2018 (Part - 3) (Download PDF)

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Big data - It is data sets that are so voluminous and complex. That traditional data-processing application software are inadequate to deal with them. Big data challenges include capturing data, search, data storage, data analysis sharing, transfer, visualization, querying, updating, information privacy and data source.

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Expected Questions on Computers, IT & Geography 2018 (In English)

Dr. Manishika Jain discusses Expected Questions on Computers and Information Technology, Geography for NET and IAS exam

  • There are five dimensions to big data volume, variety, velocity and recently added veracity and value.

  • Big data major focus of scientists & technologists because of Indian government’s new initiatives like ‘Digital India’

  • Various applications of Big data ecosystem in the emerging technology areas such as:

    • Artificial intelligence

    • Machine learning

    • IoT and Smart cities

  • ‘Big data’ gained significant popularity globally because of its capability to revolutionize the businesses and services.

  • Big data has an impact on every aspect of our daily life. The emerging technology areas like Internet of Things (IoT), Artificial intelligence, machine learning are fuelled by Big data and analytics.

  • Big data has become the major focus of scientists and technologists because of Indian government’s new initiatives like ‘Digital India’.

Why is Big Data Standardization Important?

  • Standardization in Big data is going to play a major role in facilitating the exchange and sharing huge volume of data across multiple platforms, multiple applications and multiple sectors.

  • With proper standardization in place, huge volume of data generated within a system can be effectively utilized by other systems/services and applications.

  • Various applications of Big data ecosystem in the emerging technology areas like Artificial intelligence, Machine learning, IoT and Smart cities

Geography

Geographical Indications:

  • Cell for IPR Promotions & Management (CIPAM) under the sponsorship of the DIPP has launched a logo and tagline/slogan contest for Geographical Indications (GIs) of India on MyGov. in website.

  • Also, launched:

  • “Gift a GI” campaign: To enhance visibility and thus help in branding and promotion of registered GI products.

  • Social media campaign: To promote Indian GIs with #LetsTalkIP.

  • Examples of registered Indian GIs are:

    • Darjeeling Tea

    • Tirupathi Laddu

    • Kangra Paintings

    • Nagpur Orange

    • Kashmir Pashmina etc.

Location of New Sainik Schools

  • Sainik Schools are a system of schools in India established and managed by the Sainik Schools Society under Ministry of Defence.

  • They were conceived in 1961 by V. K. Krishna Menon, the Defence Minister of India.

  • 26 schools cover all the states of the country.

  • Aim of building sainiki schools in India is:

    • Rectify the regional and class imbalance amongst the officers of the Indian Military.

    • Prepare students for entry into NDA, Khadakwasla and Indian Naval Academy.

    • Schools come under the purview of respective state governments and Ministry of Defence.

Piece of Canada is stuck to Australia

  • Researchers at Curtin University in Australia found that more than a billion years ago a part of present-day Canada broke away from the fledging North American continent and smashed into Australia.

  • Chunk of this land is present day Georgetown, Australia.

  • Researchers at Curtin looked at new sediment data from Georgetown and neighboring regions.

  • Rock record did not match the rest of the Australian continent but matched areas of Canada thus proving that the two distinct landmasses collided.

  • This new finding is a key step in understanding how Earth’s first supercontinent Nuna may have formed.

What is CVI? Rough Sea Eroding Coastal Villages in South Gujarat

  • Gujarat’s 1, 617 km coastline the longest in the country is the lifeline.

  • It is being chewed away across large swaths by the Arabian sea.

  • The tides and currents are becoming high, thus reaching the villages on the banks of Arabian Sea.

  • Recent study shows that 35.98 % of the Gujarat coast is eroding, and 1035.23 sq km area has been lost already.

  • Eroding of coasts is making communities and ecology more vulnerable.

  • The tides and currents are becoming high, thus reaching the villages on the banks of Arabian Sea.

What is Lean Period and Flush Period for Milk Supply?

  • With the ‘flush season’ in milk production commencing, milk supply to Goa has been restored giving a respite to local consumers.

  • Earlier in December, Goa faced an acute shortage of milk, due to a prolonged lean season of milk.

  • April to November is a lean season for milk production and December to March is called flush season.

  • In 2017, the lean season continued up to December.

  • It resulted in a shortage of about 6, 000 litres of milk on an average per day.

New Tectonic Microplate “Malpelo Plate” Off the Coast of Ecuador

  • Rice University’s researcher found new tectonic mircoplate off Ecuador’s coast in the eastern Pacific Ocean.

  • Named it Malpelo plate, after a Colombian island and an oceanic ridge it contains.

  • It is the 57th tectonic microplate discovered so far and the first in nearly a decade.

  • Malpelo plate was identified with the help of a diffuse plate boundary running from the Panama Transform Fault eastward where it intersects deep oceanic trench just offshore of Ecuador and Colombia.

  • Plate tectonics are driven by convection in the mantle.

  • Microplates are tiny tectonic plates.

How Does IMD Name Cyclones? Do You Know 7 Classes of Cyclones?

Refer -

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Naming of Tropical Cyclones & Ockhi Cyclone

Dr. Manishika Jain explains naming of tropical cyclones in North Indian Ocean and Ockhi Cyclone recently.

  • Very Severe Cyclonic Storm Ockhi was the most intense tropical cyclone to traverse the Arabian Sea since Cyclone Megh in 2015 and the third and strongest storm of the 2017 North Indian Ocean cyclone season.

  • Ockhi originated from an area of disturbed weather near Sri Lanka on November 29.

  • Finally dry air intrusion from the west gradually weakened the system.

  • 7 Classes of IMD Cyclone Classification:

    • Low pressure Area

    • Depression

    • Deep Depression

    • Cyclonic Storm

    • Severe Cyclonic storm

    • Very Severe cyclonic Storm

    • Super Cyclonic Storm

What is Nagoya Protocol, Convention on Biological Diversity and CITES?

  • Botanical Survey of India (BSI) and UK’s Natural History Museum (NHM) signed MoU for cooperation in field of genetic and taxonomic studies, research and training, conservation of India, including species and habitat assessments.

  • CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) is an international agreement.

  • Convention on Biological Diversity signed by 150 government leaders at the 1992 Rio Earth Summit.

  • Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization to the Convention on Biological Diversity, also known as the Nagoya Protocol on Access and Benefit Sharing (ABS).

Revival of Five Urea Units: Decline in Urea Imports save US $1.08 Million in April-December 2017

  • Ministry of State for Chemicals & Fertilizers imports urea on Government account to bridge the gap between estimated indigenous production and assessed demand in the country.

  • The import during the year 2017 - 18 (Apr-Dec) was 49.83 Lakh MT as against the import of 49.88 Lakh MT in the year 2016 - 17 for the same duration.

  • Government is reviving plants at, Ramagundam, Sindri, Gorakhpur and Talcher units of FCIL and Barauni unit of HFCL.

Nanaji Deshmukh Krishi Sanjivani Yojana Approves by Maharashtra

  • The Maharashtra government approved Rs. 4, 000-crore project aimed at promoting climate-resilient agriculture, to be partially funded by the World Bank.

  • Nanaji Deshmukh Krishi Sanjivani Yojna will be implemented in 5, 142 villages across 15 district.

  • It will roll out in 2018 - 19 and continue till 2023 - 24.

  • The scheme would cover small- and medium- scale farmers, who are more vulnerable to the impact of climate change.

Guarseed Became First Agri-Commodity Option

  • Three guar seed options contracts that will expire in February, March, and April of this year are being made available on NCDEX for trading initially.

  • NCDEX’s guarseed option is one of the liquid contracts on the exchange platform.

  • Guarseed is the first agri-commodity options.

  • Around 15 lakh farmers are associated with this commodity.

  • NCDEX is the second exchange after MCX to launch options trading in commodities.

  • Guar gum is extracted from guar seed which is used by drilling companies to thicken water mixed with sand and pumped through shale rock cracks to extract gas.

What is Coconut Development Board (CDB)? India Leading in Coconut Production & Productivity

  • Annual coconut production is 2395 crore from 20.82 lakh hectare and the productivity is 11505 coconuts/hectare.

  • In the year 2016 - 17, coconut products worth Rs. 2084 crore has been exported.

  • Coconut contributes to about Rs. 27900 crore to the country’s GDP.

  • Coconut production plays an important role in the national economy of India.

  • According to the FAO, UN, India was the world’s third largest producer of coconuts, producing 10, 894, 000 tons in 2009.

2018 as National Year of Millets

  • Government approved 2018 as National Year of Millets to boost production of the nutrient-rich millets and boost agri industry involved in it.

  • In November 2017, India had forwarded proposal to United Nations (UN) for declaring year 2018 as ‘International Year of Millets’.

  • Millet is a common term to categorize small-seeded grasses that are often termed nutri-cereals or dryland-cereals.

  • It mainly includes sorghum, ragi, pearl millet, small millet, proso millet, foxtail millet, barnyard millet, kodo millet etc.

Loan for Tamil Nadu Irrigation Agriculture Modernization Project

  • The Union Government, Tamil Nadu Government and World Bank have signed the agreement for the loan.

  • According to the agreement, $318 million dollar will be given to the Tamil Nadu Irrigated Agriculture Modernization Project.

Aims of the project:

  • To promote climate resilient agriculture technologies.

  • Improve water management practices.

  • Increase market opportunities for small and marginal farmers.

What Was LOP? Blue Revolution: India Second Largest Fish Producing Country

  • With removal of “Letter of Permit” or “LOP” system in the Indian EEZ since January 2017, overall fish production has increased to approximately 18.86 % in comparison to last three years & inland fisheries sector has registered a growth of 26%.

  • LoP scheme - facilitate Indian fishermen buy used deep sea fishing vessels from Taiwan and Thailand, and after having them registered in India, use these boats to fish in Indian waters. It allowed for 3 year deferred payment system under which 10 % of value of the vessel needed to be paid in order to obtain the licence. A proof of that payment along with Rs. 10, 000 was Ministry’s asking price for the permit; the Coast Guard was entrusted with the responsibility of ensuring the plan functioned according to the guidelines.

  • India has become second largest fish producing Country

  • LOP:

    • Government’s reaction to such illegal competition was LOP scheme initiated in 2002.

    • Globally, one fishery in four around the world collapsed in the past 50 years due to unsustainable fishing practices.

  • Main aim of Blue Revolution Scheme is to increase the fish production and productivity to up to 8 % annual growth rate and to produce 15 million tons of fish by 2020.

Refer below Video: -

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Blue Economy Versus Ocean Economy

Dr. Manishika Jain explains Blue Economy versus Ocean Economy recently in news with Gogha-Dahej Ro-Ro ferry.

AI in Agricultural & Healthcare - Smart Farming Using Artificial, Drones & Remote Sensing

  • In Andhra Pradesh’s Devanakonda Mandal in Kurnool district where farmers depended on rain for groundnut and cotton crops now use AI to get accurate predictions.

  • With landholdings of just two to three acres and poor weather prediction most depended on experience to decide when to sow.

  • International Crops Research Institute for Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), the Andhra Pradesh government and Microsoft added AI (Artificial Intelligence).

  • New research from Japanese scientists suggests AI could be used to detect colorectal cancer in its earliest stages, before tumors become malignant and the deadly cancer becomes much harder to treat with 86 % accuracy.

National Mission on Bovine Productivity: (ETT) - Revolution in Bovine Breeding

  • Embryo transfer technology (ETT) revolutionized the breeding strategies in Bovines as to optimize the genetic improvement in cattle.

  • Aims: To conserves and develop indigenous breeds under Rashtriya Gokul Mission.

  • Launched in November 2016 to enhance milk production and productivity making dairying more remunerative to farmers.

  • Components:

    • Pashu Sanjivni

    • Advance Reproductive Technique

    • Creating E Pashu Haat Portal

    • Establishing National Bovine Genomic Centre for Indigenous Breeds (NBGC-IB)

    • Rashtriya Gokul Mission

Production of Sugarcane:

  • First Hybrid clone species 205 was developed for sub-tropical climate.

  • It was launched in 1918 for commercial farming.

  • Sugarcane revolution started with launch of variety 205 and now ICAR- Sugarcane Breeding Institute has released variety 0238.

  • India is 2nd largest producer of sugarcane in the world.

  • India is leading sugarcane exporter exporting more than 28 Lakh tons of sugarcane last year.

  • Uttar Pradesh:

    • Largest producer of sugarcane followed by Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu.

    • Accounts for 39 % of total sugarcane production (1, 333 Lakh Tons).

    • Largest area- 21 Lakh Hectares of land under sugarcane cultivation.

What is TRIFED? TRIFED Celebrates World Honey Bee Day

  • Tribal Cooperative Marketing Development Federation of India (TRIFED) came into existence in 1987.

  • It is a national-level apex organization functioning under Ministry of Tribal Affairs.

  • Head office located in New Delhi and has network of 13 regional offices located across country.

  • TRIFED’s role is facilitator and service provider.

  • Tribal Cooperative Marketing Development Federation celebrated World Honey Bee Day (WHBD) on 19.08. 2017 to create awareness about Beekeeping and uses of its products including Honey.

Farmer Zone Agriculture DBT’S Smart Agriculture Conclave

  • Ministry of Science and Technology is creating FarmerZone- collective open-source data platform for smart agriculture based on biological research and data for benefit of small and marginal farmers.

  • DBT convened Smart Agriculture Conclave in New Delhi to set stage for “FarmerZone”.

  • Agricultural conclave aimed to advance technological intervention for small and marginal farmers

  • Identified challenges in each agro-climatic region, and discussed possible solutions through scientific interventions.

Record Horticulture Production in 2016 - 17: 300 Million Tones

  • Department of Agriculture, Cooperation and Farmers Welfare released Third Advance Estimates of Area and Production of Horticulture Crops for 2016 - 17.

  • The area under horticulture crops increased from 24.5 million ha to 25.1 million ha

  • Record fruit production estimated to be 93.7 million tons

  • Record production of vegetables estimated to be 176 million tons

  • Flowers production estimated to be around 2.3 million tons

  • Record production of plantation crops estimated to be around 18.3 million tons

  • Record production of spices is estimated to be around 8.2 million tons

APEDA’S New App for Farm Registration & Approval and Lab Sampling

  • Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA) developed Hortinet as an integrated traceability system for providing Internet based electronic services for

    • Facilitating farm registration

    • Testing & certification of grape, pomegranate and vegetables for export in compliance with standards.

  • Mobile app to assist State Horticulture and Agriculture Departments in capturing real time details of farmers, farm location, products, and inspections.

  • After registration and approval farmer gets approval information.

MoU between India and BRICs for BRICS Agriculture Research Platform (BRICS-ARP)

  • Ex-post facto approval was given by cabinet for MoU between India and various BRICs countries for establishment of BRICS Agriculture Research Platform (BRICS-ARP).

  • BRIC refers to the countries of Brazil, Russia, India and China- deemed to be at a similar stage of newly advanced economic development.

  • Future of BRIC as an economy group is questionable with only India luring global investors, China struggling with slow down and Brazil and Russia in heavy recessions.

AGRI UDAAN- Food and Agribusiness Accelerator 2.0

  • ICAR-NAARM Technology Business Incubator (TBI), a-IDEA and IIM Ahmedabad’s (IIM-A) incubator Center for Innovation, Incubation and Entrepreneurship (CIIE) announced “AGRI UDAAN”- Food and Agribusiness Accelerator 2.0.

  • Program to select startups for mentoring to scale operations in agri-value chain for effective improvement in agriculture.

  • 6 month program where shortlisted agri startups will be mentored to scale up their operations- called Accelerator.

  • Support given through education, mentorship, and financing.

Draft Regulations for Organic Food Products

  • Food regulator FSSAI come out with a draft regulation for organic food products, seeking to ensure that these food items are actually organic.

  • Draft regulations for organic food products to ensure authenticity of organic foods.

  • FSSAI’s guidelines prepared in view of rising demand for organic food products.

  • Organic food products should also carry a certification mark or a quality assurance mark given by any of the notified certification bodies.

  • Draft regulation mandates that labelling of organic foods should convey full and accurate information on the organic status of the product.

Scheme for Integrated Cold Chain and Value Addition Infrastructure: Irradiation for Preservation

  • Ministry of Food Processing Industries implementing a scheme for Integrated Cold Chain and Value Addition Infrastructure to prevent post-harvest losses of horticultural & non-horticultural produce.

  • One of the components is to set up Irradiation facilities for preserving food products including onion, potato etc.

  • Food can be irradiated only in a food irradiation plant authorized by Atomic Energy Regulatory Board and licensed by competent Government Authority.

  • License given only after ascertaining the safety and security of the installation.

  • FSSAI regulates food safety aspects of irradiated food products under Food Safety and Standards Act, 2016.

Project CHAMAN:

  • Pioneer project to provide strategic development to the horticulture sector.

  • Increase farmers’ income.

  • Implemented by National Crop Forecast Centre (MNCFC) using remote sensing technology and is likely to be completed in March 2018.

  • This methodology developed for 7 important horticulture crops.

  • It would be made operational in all the states.

Sun and sea water powers vegetable farms in Jordan

Jordan launched Sahara Forest Project ‘to turn its sand dunes into farming land’ to produce food using sun and sea water.

Objectives of the project:

  • To produce up to 130 tons of organic vegetables per year from an area the size of 4 football pitches.

  • It will use solar panels to provide power.

  • It include:

    • Outdoor planting space

    • Two saltwater - cooled greenhouses

    • A water desalination unit

    • Salt ponds for salt production

  • Used in a sustainable way to produce agricultural goods in a quite tough climate.

Food and Seed Irradiations

  • Radiation in agriculture used for developing improved varieties of seeds increasing GDP of India.

  • Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) is using radiation - induced mutagenesis along with cross breeding to develop several varieties of oilseeds, pulses, rice, and jute for commercial cultivation.

  • These crops have higher yield, seed size, improved agronomic and quality traits, early maturity, and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses.

  • Several varieties contribute substantially to the total agricultural production BARC.

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Expected Questions on Computers, IT & Geography 2018 (In Hindi)

Dr. Manishika Jain discusses Expected Questions on Computers and Information Technology, Geography for NET and IAS exam

👌 implies important for Objective Questions/MCQ

📝 implies important for Subjective Questions

📹 implies covered in Videos or Upcoming Videos

- Published/Last Modified on: May 25, 2018

Computers & ICT

Monthy-updated, fully-solved, large current affairs-2019 question bank(more than 2000 problems): Quickly cover most-important current-affairs questions with pointwise explanations especially designed for IAS, NTA-NET, Bank-PO and other competetive exams.