Expected Questions for Science Technology & Space 2018 - Part 2 (Set - 1) (Download PDF)

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Jacques Dubochet, Joachim Frank and Richard Henderson selected for 2017 Nobel Prize in Chemistry - The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has selected Jacques Dubochet, Joachim Frank and Richard Henderson for the 2017 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

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Expected Questions on Science & Technology 2018 - UPSC IAS Prelims (Part 2) (In English)

Dr. Manishika Jain discusses Expected Questions on Science and Technology 2018 for IAS Prelims Part 2

  • Selected for developing cryo-electron microscopy for the high resolution structure determination of biomolecules in solution.

  • Joachim Frank made technology more widely applicable.

2017 Nobel Prize in Physics Goes to the Discovery of Gravitational Waves

  • Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has selected three American scientists for the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics:

    • Rainer Weiss

    • Barry C. Barish

    • Kip S. Thorne

  • Selected for their decisive contributions to the LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory) detector and the observation of gravitational waves.

Three US-born Scientists Win 2017 Nobel Medicine Prize

  • The 2017 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded to:

    • Jeffrey C. Hall (72)

    • Michael Rosbash (73)

    • Michael W. Young (68)

  • It was announced by Nobel Assembly at Sweden’s Karolinska Institute.

  • They were awarded for discovering molecular mechanisms controlling circadian rhythm.

Rashtrapati Bhavan Hosts Nobel Laureates Seminar Nobel Participants & Indian Laureates

  • Rashtrapati Bhavan on February 5, 2018, hosted a one-day Nobel Laureates Seminar.

  • Seminar organized by the Department of Biotechnology, Government of India in association with the Nobel Foundation.

  • This is part of the Nobel Prize Series.

  • Aims for regular and landmark engagement between Indian scientific and policy community and the Nobel Foundation.

  • Indians in Nobel Laureate List:

    • 12 Indians (5 Indian citizens and 7 of Indian origin or residency) are Nobel Laureates.

    • Rabindranath Tagore was the first Indian citizen to be awarded.

    • Mother Teresa is the only woman in the list.

    • C. V. Raman in Physics, Amartya Sen in Economics, Kailash Satyarthi in Peace are Nobel laureates.

    • Sri Aurobindo was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1943 and for the Nobel Prize in Peace in 1950.

XFEL: World’s Biggest and Powerful X-ray Laser Gun Unveiled

  • World’s largest and powerful X-ray laser - European X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) was unveiled in Hamburg, Germany.

  • First beams from XFEL were accelerated in April 2017.

  • First X-ray beams were produced in May 2017.

  • It will help scientists penetrate the inner workings of atoms, viruses and chemical reactions.

ICOSIS unveils Ocean forecasting system for Comoros, Madagascar and Mozambique

  • Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services (INCOIS) of the Ministry of Earth Sciences inaugurated Ocean Forecasting System for Indian Ocean countries:

    • Comoros

    • Madagascar

    • Mozambique

  • INCOIS is an autonomous organization of the Union Government.

  • Established in 1999 and is headquartered in Pragathi Nagar, Hyderabad.

Versius: World’s Smallest Surgical Robot Developed by UK Scientists

  • Scientists in the United Kingdom (UK) developed the world’s smallest surgical robot called Versius.

  • Developed using low-cost technology used in mobile phones and space industries.

  • Robot can mimic human arm and can be used to carry out a wide range of surgical procedures.

  • Controlled by a surgeon using a console guided by a 3D screen in the operating theatre.

Chemical from Turmeric Treats Cancer in Children

  • Scientists from US found that curcumin, the bioactive component of turmeric that is widely used in Indian cuisine can treat cancer in children.

  • They have found that nanoparticles loaded with curcumin can target and destroy neuroblastoma tumour cells.

  • Commonly affects children aged five or less.

Aarambh Mobile App for Road Maintenance

  • The Union Ministry of Rural Development launched Aarambh mobile app for performance based maintenance contracting and community contracting for maintenance of rural roads.

  • Uses GIS based mapping for making road inventories and condition survey.

  • Produces cost estimates & other relevant data for preparation and monitoring of annual road maintenance plans.

  • Help to increase the service delivery of the state level institutions in planning and implementing performance based rural roads maintenance contracts.

India Quake App for Earthquake Parameter Dissemination

  • Ministry of Earth Science launched India Quake application developed by the National Centre for Seismology (NCS) for automatic dissemination of earthquake parameter (location, time, and magnitude) after the occurrence of earthquakes.

  • Key Features of India Quake App:

    • Facilitates faster dissemination information

    • No restrictions on the number of recipients

    • Provide real time earthquake location information.

    • Reduce panic.

Distribution of Methane Hydrate- Methane Hydrate under South China Sea Exploited

  • China successfully produced natural gas from methane hydrate in the South China Sea (SCS).

  • Total of 3, 09, 000 cubic meters of natural gas was produced from gas hydrate in 60 days.

  • India also has rich deposits of methane hydrates.

  • Gas hydrates consist natural gas (most commonly methane) enclosed within a solid lattice of water molecules.

  • Large store of organic carbon opportunity to understand hydrate’s role in global carbon cycling, natural geohazards, and as a potential future source of energy.

Deep Ocean Mission of India

  • Union Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES) launching Deep Ocean Mission for research in ocean science and developing technology to harness ocean resources to Explore India’s 7, 500 km coastline and 2.4 million square km of exclusive economic zone (EEZ).

  • Harness the enormous opportunities of energy, food, medicine, and natural resources in Indian peninsula.

  • Compete with China in deep-sea mission for mining mineral deposits in Indian and Pacific oceans.

  • Seawater desalination project of Rs. 2, 000 crore at the Chennai coast also taken up under the mission to eliminate the potable water problem.

  • Deep Ocean Exploration Create jobs and business opportunities in ocean science.

China Develops Artificial Heart with Rocket Technology

  • Chinese scientists developed artificial heart using rocket technology.

  • It is currently undergoing thorough testing experiments on animals.

  • The heart was developed jointly by China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology (CALT) and Teda International Cardiovascular Hospital in North China’s Tianjin.

  • The artificial heart uses magnetic and fluid levitation from rocket system.

Photovoltaic Road Tested in China

  • China successfully tested its first photovoltaic (solar) highway based on home-grown technology in country’s eastern Shandong province.

  • It became the second country in the world to construct a photovoltaic highway.

  • Road provides wireless charging systems for electric vehicles.

  • France introduced world’s first photovoltaic road fitted with solar panels in late 2016.

  • China’s photovoltaic highway constructed using solar panels, which have thin sheet of transparent concrete on top of them, protecting the surface.

Successful Launch of Chinese Remote Sensing Satellites of Yaogan-30 Project

  • China launched remote sensing satellites from Xichang Satellite launch centre in the southwest Sichuan province.

  • This launch was the third batch of the Yaogan-30 project.

  • The launch is the 260th mission of the Long March rocket family.

  • Long March-2C carrier rocket carried the three satellites.

  • Yaogan-30 is Remote Sensing Satellite program of China.

  • Launch of three satellites on a singular carrier rocket was done several times by the Chinese.

  • This mission is similar to the Naval Ocean Surveillance System (NOSS) operated by US.

Tiangong-1: China’s Space Lab Plummets to Earth, Burns up over Pacific Ocean

  • China’s out-of-control Tiangong-1 space lab re-entered Earth’s atmosphere, landing in middle of the South Pacific Ocean near world’s ‘spacecraft cemetery or graveyard’.

  • Most of its parts were burned up during gravity-propelled re-entry process.

  • The spacecraft cemetery also known as Point Nemo — considered the most remote place on Earth (at about 2400 km from any spot of land).

  • Tiangong-1 (Heavenly Palace or Celestial Palace-1) was China’s first prototype space station or space laboratory.

China Launches Twin BeiDou-3 Navigation Satellites into Space

  • China successfully sent pair of twin Beidou-3MEO satellites – Beidou-30 and Beidou-31 –into space as part of its third and final stage of launching its domestic Beidou (Compass) satellite navigation system.

  • They were launched on board Long March-3B carrier rocket from Xichang Satellite Launch Center in southwest China’s Sichuan Province.

  • It was 269th mission for the Long March rocket family.

AG600: World’s Largest Amphibious Aircraft Takes off

  • China’s home-grown AG600, also known as ‘Kunlong’.

  • The world’s largest amphibious aircraft took off from the southern city of Zhuhai and landed after roughly an hour-long flight.

  • Its successful maiden flight makes China among the world’s few countries capable of developing a large amphibious aircraft.

  • It also further strengthens China’s rapidly modernizing military.

China Launches World’s First Hybrid Electric Tram Powered by Hydrogen Fuel Cells

  • World’s first hybrid electric tram powered by hydrogen fuel cells was launched in China’s Tangshan city.

  • North China’s Hebei Province to give big boost to green energy in public transport.

  • First of its kind ecologically-friendly tram was domestically developed by China Railway Rolling Stock Corporation (CRRC) in 2015.

  • Ecologically-friendly tram emits only water without any pollutants.

LKW-2: China Successfully Launches Second Land Surveying Satellite

  • China successfully launched its second Land Surveying Satellite LKW-2 (or Yaogan Weixing-32) into a preset orbit from Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center in the Gobi desert.

  • The satellite will be used for remote sensing exploration of land resources.

  • It was launched on board of Long March-2D rocket.

  • It was 259th mission of the Long March rocket series.

World’s Largest Automated Container Terminal Opens in China

  • China started operations of world’s biggest automated container terminal at Yangshan Deep Water Port, Shanghai.

  • Terminal is located at south of Donghai Bridge, phase 4 of Yangshan Port.

  • Covers 2.23 million square metres and has a 2, 350-metre shoreline.

  • Also, automated management system used at port to maintain safety and efficiency.

  • Project uses automated handling equipment designed and manufactured in China.

Scientists Successfully Clone Monkeys

  • For the first time, researchers used the cloning technique to create healthy monkeys- earlier the same technique was used to clone Dolly, the sheep.

  • The creation of monkeys by cloning brings science an important step closer to being able to do the same with humans.

  • Since, Dolly’s birth in 1996, scientists cloned nearly two dozen kinds of mammals, including dogs, cats, pigs, cows and polo ponies.

  • Scientists have also created human embryos.

  • Until now, they were unsuccessful in making babies in primates - category that includes monkeys, apes and people.

Chinese Scientists for First Time Successfully Clone Monkeys

  • Chinese scientists for first time successfully cloned two identical long-tailed macaques (monkeys), named Zhong Zhong and Hua Hua using same technique that produced Dolly sheep two decades ago.

  • This development makes them world’s first primates – the order of mammals that includes monkeys, apes and humans – to be cloned from non-embryonic cell.

  • These two identical long-tailed macaques were cloned using process called somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT).

Space Studies

Cassini- Huygens Space Probe Orbiting Saturn Now Retired

  • Cassini space probe deliberately disposed of via a controlled fall into Saturn’s atmosphere on September 15, 2017, ending its nearly two-decade-long mission.

  • Method of disposal chosen to prevent biological contamination of Saturn’s moons now thought to offer potentially habitable environments.

  • Cassini-Huygens described by NASA’s Planetary Science Division Director as a “mission of firsts”.

Cassini Timeline and Facts:

  • Collaboration between United States’ NASA, the European Space Agency (“ESA”), and Italian Space Agency (“ASI”).

  • Probe to study Saturn and its system, including its rings and natural satellites.

ASPIRE: NASA Tests Supersonic Mars Landing Parachute

  • NASA successfully conducted Advanced Supersonic Parachute Inflation Research Experiment (ASPIRE) to test supersonic parachute that will help its space exploration missions to land on Mars.

  • Parachute launched aboard of sounding rocket from NASA’s Wallops Flight Facility in US.

  • It was tested in sky, mimicking conditions of entering red planet.

  • The test of ASPIRE was meant to mimic conditions that spacecraft will experience during red planet entry, descent and landing (EDL).

InSight Mission: NASA’s First Mission to Explore Deep Interior of Mars

  • NASA will send first-ever mission named as InSight (Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport) dedicated to exploring deep interior of Mars.

  • InSight will be stationary lander that will be launched in May 2018.

  • It will be first NASA mission since Apollo moon landings to place seismometer, a device that measures quakes on the soil of another planet.

TESS: NASA, SpaceX Collaborate to Search for Exoplanets

  • NASA partnered with private space launching company Space X to launch Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) to search for exoplanets using transit method.

  • TESS designed to carry out first space borne all-sky transiting exoplanet survey.

  • It is equipped with four wide-angle telescopes and associated charge-coupled device (CCD) detectors.

  • It is planned to be launched in April 2018 on board of SpaceX’s Falcon 9 rocket from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station.

  • A new planet-hunting spacecraft onboard of SpaceX’s Falcon 9 rocket from Cape Carnival, Florida, US.

  • TESS mission is designed to carry out first space borne all-sky transiting exoplanet survey.

  • Mission led by Massachusetts Institute of Technology’s Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research.

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Expected Questions on Science & Technology 2018 - UPSC IAS Prelims (Part 2) (In Hindi)

Dr. Manishika Jain discusses Expected Questions on Science and Technology 2018 for IAS Prelims Part 2

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- Published/Last Modified on: May 23, 2018

Science/Technology

Monthy-updated, fully-solved, large current affairs-2019 question bank(more than 2000 problems): Quickly cover most-important current-affairs questions with pointwise explanations especially designed for IAS, NTA-NET, Bank-PO and other competetive exams.