Expected Questions for Science Technology and Space Part 1 (Set -1) (Download PDF)

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MedWatch - Indian Air Force launched an innovative mobile health App named ‘MedWatch’, Comprises host of features that will provide authentic health information to all IAF personnel, It acts as a reminder for timely immunization for the children of all Air Warriors, enabling ‘Mission Indradhanush’ program.

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Expected Questions on Science & Technology 2018 - UPSC IAS Prelims (Part 1) (In English)

Dr. Manishika Jain discusses Expected Questions on Science and Technology 2018 for IAS Prelims Part 1

Nano Capsules as Drug Carriers

  • Scientists developed Nano capsules that are bio - degradable and capable of delivering a potent drug into a tumor.

  • Nano medicine involves use of nanoscale materials for diagnosis, delivery, sensing or actuation purposes on living organisms.

  • It helps in efficient management of various infectious and tumor diseases, where immunity-stimulation is a leading factor for the treatment.

CARB - X and Antibiotic Resistance

  • Bengaluru firm become India’s first to receive international Combating Antibiotic Resistant Biopharmaceutical Accelerator (CARB - X) grant to develop antibiotics to treat hospital - acquired infections.

  • ARB-X, or Combating Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria Biopharmaceutical Accelerator, is a PPP.

  • Bacteria classified as Gram - positive and Gram - negative, based on a structural difference in their cell walls.

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Prokaryotic Cell: Shape, Structure, Gram Positive & Gram Negative Bacteria

Dr. Manishika Jain in this lesson explains Prokaryotic Cell, its shape, Structure and the differences between the Gram Positive & Gram Negative Bacteria.

  • Gram - negative bacteria are responsible for 20 to 25 % of infections.

New DNA Test to Screen a Child for 193 Genetic Diseases

  • Simple DNA screening test called Sema4 Natalis to detect 193 childhood-onset diseases.

  • It’s including epilepsy, spinal muscular atrophy and cancer was developed by a US-based genomic testing company.

  • Test could be performed at home with a gentle cheek swab to allow parents to gain early insight into their baby’s health.

  • Sema4 Natalis screens for over five times the number of genetic diseases than a standard hospital test and would be used as a supplement test.

  • Sema4 Natalis uses advanced DNA sequencing to analyze a baby’s genes.

First Digital Online Oncology Tutorial

  • First digital Online Oncology Tutorial Series designed by Tata Memorial Center in collaboration with the Health Ministry.

  • This is an initiative of the Health Ministry and Tata Memorial Centre (a grant-in-aid cancer centre under Department of Atomic Energy, GOI) under the Digital India initiative of GoI.

  • Oncology tutorials will train doctors across India in early detection, prevention, palliation, rehabilitation and treatment of various cancers.

  • Reaches millions of doctors who may not have time to attend physical conferences, CMEs and are busy working in rural or tier 2 cities.

India’s First Solar Storage Power Plant at Andaman

  • First city-scale battery Solar Storage Power Plant of India is going to be setup at Andaman- well known for its fabulous beaches.

  • NTPC, the largest power generation utility of India will construct two solar storage plants with total 25 MW (megawatt) capacity at Port Blair for tourism development.

  • The storage solar power plant will provide floating capacity to limit liquid gas generators to the less-polluting fuel.

  • Core business of NTPC is generation and sale of electricity to state-owned power supply companies and State Electricity Boards in India.

What Happens During Solar Minimum? Sun May Become 7 % Cooler by 2050

  • Scientists based on 20 years of observations and data, calculated that sun will be nearly 7 % cooler and dimmer by 2050 causing a mini ice age, said the team of researchers from San Diego.

  • Physicist Dan Lubin lead the study has revealed his observations.

  • The sun moves through an 11-year-cycle where it experiences active and quiet periods, known as the solar maximum and solar minimum.

  • Sun may soon experience its ‘grand minimum’ phase and become unusually cool by 2050.

  • In this state UV radiation diminishes 7 % beyond the lowest point of its cycle.

  • ‘Grand minimum, ’ echoes conditions experienced in Europe in the mid-17th century.

NASA Recorded High - Intensity Solar Flare

  • Recently, NASA recorded two high - intensity solar flares.

  • Solar flare is a sudden flash of increased Sun’s brightness, generally observed near its surface.

  • Flares are often, but not always, accompanied by a coronal mass ejection.

These radiation flares can disrupt communication satellites, GPS and power grids by reaching the upper earth atmosphere.

Parker Solar Probe: NASA to Launch Humanity’s First Flight to Sun in July 2018

  • NASA’s will launch humanity’s first mission Parker Solar Probe (PSP) to the Sun in July 31, 2018.

  • After its launch, the probe will orbit directly through solar atmosphere — the corona — closer to surface than any human-made object has ever gone.

  • It is NASA’s first planned robotic spacecraft to study outer corona of Sun.

  • It has been designed and built by Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory.

What Are Sprites (Spacecraft) and Breakthrough Starshot?

  • Breakthrough Starshot is a research and engineering project by Breakthrough Initiatives to develop a proof-of-concept fleet of light sail spacecraft, named StarChip.

  • They are capable of making journey to the Alpha Centauri star system, 4.37 light-years away, at speeds between 15 % and 20 % of the speed of light.

  • The small spacecraft in general are called sprites.

  • Sprite is a tiny (3.5 by 3.5 centimeter) single-board spacecraft with microcontroller, radio, and solar cells capable of carrying single-chip sensors, such as thermometers, magnetometers, gyroscopes, and accelerometers.

  • Breakthrough Initiatives, announced by Yuri Milner and Stephen Hawking to develop and launch practical interstellar space missions.

Bionic Leaf: Bacteria Can Convert Solar Energy to Liquid Fuel

  • Scientists from Harvard University created a system that uses bacteria to convert solar energy into liquid fuel.

  • Work produces an “artificial leaf, ” using a catalyst to make sunlight split water into hydrogen and oxygen, with a bacterium engineered to convert carbon dioxide plus hydrogen into the liquid fuel isopropanol.

  • We can harness solar energy as fuel by using electricity from photovoltaic cells to yield hydrogen that can be later used in fuel cells.

  • New discovery harvests solar energy and stores it in the form of a liquid fuel.

  • Local energy especially attractive in the developing countries like India.

Impacts and Benefits of Artificial Intelligence

  • Role of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in uniting goals of development and public prosperity.

  • Artificial Intelligence also known as AI, is the ability of machines like computers to perform functions that normally require human intelligence.

  • AI is the ability of software to develop and apply intelligence like humans.

  • Surveys indicate that technologies related to AI will kill from a third to a half of all jobs within a decade.

Al System Can Predict Alzheimer’s

  • News is regarding the development of an artificial intelligence system.

  • That can accurately identify signs of Alzheimer’s disease almost 10 years before the clinical symptoms appear.

  • Researchers developed a machine-learning algorithm to discern structural changes in the brain caused by Alzheimer’s disease.

  • Idea was to teach the algorithm to correctly classify and discriminate between diseased and healthy brains.

  • System distinguished between healthy brain and one with Alzheimer’s with an accuracy of 86%.

SAM: World’s First AI Politician Developed

  • Scientists from New Zealand developed world’s first artificial intelligence politician named SAM.

  • Created by: Nick Gerritsen, entrepreneur in New Zealand.

  • Virtual politician SAM can answer person’s queries regarding local issues such as:

    • policies around housing

    • education

    • immigration

Geofencing, Data Mining, AI

Geofencing:

  • Geo-fence is a virtual perimeter for a real-world geographic area.

  • One example of usage involves a location-aware device of a location-based service (LBS) user entering or exiting a geo-fence.

  • Setting a unique marketing boundary that, when customers enter it, allows you to send them specific, targeted messages.

Data mining: It is a process of discovering patterns in large data sets involving methods at the intersection of machine learning, statistics, and database systems.

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Digital Reforms in India: Payment & Governance Major Computer Terminologies

Dr. Manishika Jain explains the various digital reforms and key terminologies in computers

Artificial Intelligent (AI): It is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence (NI) displayed by humans and other animals.

Microsoft Launches Project Brainwave for Real-time Artificial Intelligence

  • Software giant Microsoft launched Project Brainwave, a deep learning acceleration platform for real-time artificial intelligence (AI).

  • Its launch is important as the real-time AI.

  • It can processes requests as fast as it receives them with the help of ultra-low latency.

Kepler-90i: Eighth Planet in Kepler-90 Solar System Discovered

  • National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) announced the discovery of two new exoplanets, Kepler-90i and Kepler-80g using a deep learning neural network - an artificial intelligence (AI) tool that mimics the workings of a human brain.

  • This was first time AI was used for such a discovery in the universe.

  • Discovery demonstrates that good science not only solves problems but also can improve itself.

  • Exoplanets are the planets outside our solar system that orbits another star.

  • AI overs mechanism which blesses machines with “intelligence, “- at least in limited terms - emulating human being’s unique reasoning faculties.

Opportunity Rover Mark Evidence of Ancient Lake on Mars

  • Opportunity Mars rover of NASA found the edge of a crater on the red planet which could be lake of liquid water.

  • It has founded rocks at the edge of Endeavour Crater which were either transported by a flood or by wind.

  • Opportunity Rover has observed these features nearer to the crater rim’s crest above Perseverance Valley, which is located into the inner slope of the rim.

  • Since 2011, the Opportunity mission is examining the sites on and near the western rim of Endeavour Crater.

  • Consider all the possible explanations to conclude that how the slope might have changed.

SpaceX Launches Powerful Falcon Heavy Rocket for the First Time

  • SpaceX’s Falcon Heavy rocket took off from NASA’s Kennedy Space Center carrying its payload red Tesla Roadster into orbit finally landing into the ocean.

  • Two of the Falcon Heavy’s rocket cores successfully touched down back on Earth after takeoff.

  • Two outer boosters broke away mid-flight and returned to the Cape, touching down around 1, 000 feet from one another on Space X’s concrete landing pads.

  • SpaceX has now landed 23 rockets upright.

  • Falcon Heavy has the force of eighteen 747 jetliners.

  • Elon Musk is the CEO of SpaceX.

GOLD and ICON of NASA to Explore the Ionosphere

  • NASA announced two missions to explore the little-understood area of 96 km above Earth’s surface called Ionosphere.

  • Two missions are complementary to each other.

    • ICON will be in low-Earth orbit, at 560 km above Earth, like a close-up camera.

    • GOLD will be in a geostationary orbit over the Western Hemisphere, about 35, 398 km above the planet’s surface.

  • Ionosphere is the ionized part of Earth’s upper atmosphere, from about 60 km to 1, 000 km altitude.

  • A region that includes the thermosphere and parts of the mesosphere and exosphere.

NASA Interested in India-made Thermal Spray Coating Technology

  • NASA is interested in new India-made thermal spray coating technology used for gas turbine engine in spacecraft.

  • It has been developed by Dr. Satish Tailor, Rajasthan-based researcher working with Jodhpur-based Metallizing Equipment Company (MEC).

  • The technology is called controlled segmented Yttria-Stabilised Zirconia (YSZ) -Plasma sprayed coating technology.

Hunga Tonga: New Volcanic Pacific Island Gives NASA a Glimpse of Life on Mars

  • NASA satellites have been observing new volcanic island in the Pacific Ocean.

  • The emerging rock offers scientists a laboratory to map rarely seen rapid geological processes, which could model the mysterious terrain of Mars.

  • New island, Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha’apai, emerged from a violent underwater eruption in late December 2014.

  • Scientists expected the island in Tonga to survive just a few months. Now, they believe it could last up to 30 years.

Ocean Observation Systems

  • Ministry of Earth Sciences implements Ocean Observations System programs since 1996to acquire real-time, time series data on surface meteorological and upper oceanographic parameters from the Indian seas including from the Indian Ocean Region.

  • Ocean observation systems acquire specific ocean parameters on different spatial and temporal scales.

  • All the systems except Tide gauges and coastal Radar are deployed in the EEZ of India.

Marshall Islands to Launch World-first Digital Legal Tender

  • Marshall Islands in Pacific Ocean is set to become first country in world to recognize crypto currency as its legal tender and adopt transparent crypto monetary system.

  • The parliament of island passed law to create the digital currency called “Sovereign” with symbol SOV to raise some hard cash to pay bills and boost economy.

  • Marshall Islands is partnering with Israeli Fintech startup Neema to launch its SOV.

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Expected Questions on Science & Technology 2018 - UPSC IAS Prelims (Part 1) (In Hindi)

Dr. Manishika Jain discusses Expected Questions on Science and Technology 2018 for IAS Prelims Part 1

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- Published/Last Modified on: May 16, 2018

Science/Technology

Monthy-updated, fully-solved, large current affairs-2019 question bank(more than 2000 problems): Quickly cover most-important current-affairs questions with pointwise explanations especially designed for IAS, NTA-NET, Bank-PO and other competetive exams.