Expected Questions in Agriculture and Animals 2019 – IAS/NET (Part-2) - (Set 1) (Download PDF)

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Please find below the most important expected topics for the upcoming UPSC Prelims exam 2019. Subscribe@Examrace YouTube Channel to get the complete series of expected questions. For practice and solutions visit - doorsteptutor. com. You can download the pdf by clicking the option “Download PDF”.

Tiger reserves in news

Tiger Reserves in India

  1. Kanha Tiger Reserve in Madhya Pradesh
  2. Bandhavgarh Tiger Reserve in M. P.
  3. Satkosia Tiger Reserve in Odisha
  4. Parambikulam Tiger Reserve in Kerala
  5. Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary in Kerala
  • National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) has hinted at first-ever inter-State tiger translocation project in Odisha’s Satkosia Tiger Reserve.
  • Odisha’s Satkosia Tiger Reserve planned to get 6 tigers from MP’s Kanha Tiger Reserve.
  • Parambikulam Tiger Reserve was in news for its forest filled w/221 varieties of butterflies (11 of which are endemic to area).
  • Red-disc Bushbrown, a high-altitude species endemic to Western Ghats; rare species — Dark Blue Tiger & Common Crow & Budha Peacock or Budha Mayoori, was declared as State butterfly of Kerala.
  • Rare bird, Sri Lankan Frogmouth was sighted in Kerala’s Chinnar sanctuary.

First record of invasive aphid in Kashmir Valley

  • It is insect that attacks temperate fruit trees.

  • It is recorded for 1st time in Kashmir Valley, fruit bowl of India.

About Brown peach aphid:

  • Aphids feed on saps of plants, attacking plant tissues that transport food to all diff. plant parts.
  • Brown peach aphid Pterochloroides persicae is a notorious pest of peach & almond trees in Mediterranean regions.
  • In India, aphid was recorded for 1st time in 1970s from Himachal Pradesh & Punjab.
  • Tiny (nearly 3 mm long) aphids thrived best during April, May, September & October.
  • Spread of aphid could affect local economy which is dependent on fruit trees to a large extent. If infestation is not controlled, invasive aphid can spread fast.

Chytrid fungus: That attacks frogs

  • Chytrid fungus has caused amphibian declines worldwide & is recorded in India - possibly originated in east Asia.
  • Scientists from 38 institutions across world gathered samples of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd, als known as chytrid fungus, which causes infectious & fatal skin disease called chytridiomycosis) & compared genomes of 234 of these pathogens to trace origins of fungus.
  • Disease expanded greatly b/w 50 & 120 years ago, coinciding w/rapid global expansion of intercontinental trade.
  • Movement of amphibians by humans – such as thru pet trade has directly contributed to spreading pathogen around world.
  • Scientists recommend a ban on trade in amphibians from Asia, due to high risk associated w/exporting previously unknown strains of chytrid out of this region.
  • Fungus has affected around 700 amphibian species worldwide & caused frog declines & even extinctions in many areas. Killer fungus is recorded from several frog species & populations in Western Ghats.
  • 1st record was from Ponmudi Hills of south Kerala in 2011.
  • 2 years later, scientists of Zoo Outreach Organization recorded a chytrid strain specific to Asia in 3 endemic & threatened frog species from northern Western Ghats.
  • Study in 2015 suggests that chytridiomycosis could be “widespread” among endemic & threatened amphibians all along Western Ghats.

Canine Distemper Virus killed Gir animals

Gujarat Forest Department has started vaccination of lions in Gir sanctuary to protect them from a deadly canine distemper virus (CDV). Virus is blamed for death lions in Gujarat’s Gir sanctuary in last one month.

Canine Distemper Virus (CDV)

  • CDV is a viral disease that infects gastrointestinal, respiratory & central nervous systems.
  • Dogs who are not vaccinated for Canine Distemper are most at-risk. While disease can be contracted when improperly vaccinated or when a dog has high susceptibility to bacterial infection, these cases are rare.
  • CDV can be spread thru direct contact (licking, breathing air, etc. ) or indirect contact (bedding, toys, food bowls, etc. ), though it cannot live on surfaces for very long.
  • Inhaling virus is primary method of exposure. There is no known cure for CDV.
  • Magnificent Asiatic lion is under threat.
  • 23 lions have died in as many days in eastern part of Gujarat’s Gir sanctuary. This case is more worrisome as big cat population in Gujarat is last of Asiatic lions in wild.

Green Gold: Bamboo

Govt. had allocated a whopping Rs. 1,290 cr. to promote bamboo sector thru restructured National Bamboo Mission (NBM).

Govt. removed bamboo grown outside forest areas from definition of trees.

Key Points

  • Northeast part of India grows 67 % of India’s bamboo.
  • India grows on nearly 13 % of country’s forest land.
  • 8 NE States – Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim & Tripura grow 67 % of India’s bamboo & have 45 % of global bamboo reserves.
  • Nearly 35 species of superior quality bamboos are found in region.
  • National Bamboo Mission (NBM) is now under National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA)
  • Department of Agriculture & Cooperation (DAC) under Ministry of Agriculture is implementing 100 % Centrally Sponsored Scheme called Mission for Integrated Development of Horticulture (MIDH) in which NBM is being implemented as a sub scheme.

Concerns:

  • Failure of National Mission on Bamboo Application (NMBA), NMB & North East Centre for Technology Application & Reach (NECTAR)
  • Dept. of Science & Technology (DST) had in 2004 launched NMBA w/outlay of ₹200 cr. NMBA failed. ₹1,400 cr. NMB failed from 2007 - 2014
  • NECTAR) has also failed. NECTAR is autonomous society registered & headquartered in Shillong w/fund allocation of ₹292 cr. Even after 5 years of its creation, NECTAR yet to shift to Shillong headquarters (from New Delhi).
  • Entire team that made NMBA a failure was rehabilitated in NECTAR w/o any responsibilities being fixed. NECTAR functioned under DST & no proper functioning.

Odisha changes norms in food, procurement policy

  • To facilitate entry of more small & marginal farmers & share-croppers into procurement fold, Odisha is bringing changes in norms of food & procurement policy for Kharif Marketing Season (KMS) 2018 - 19.
  • Past practice of deducting towards personal consumption requirement at rate of 3 quintals of paddy per member in family of farmer for computation of marketable surplus of paddy is waived out from KMS 2018 - 19.
  • Cabinet approved food & procurement policy for KMS 2019 to regulate all aspects of paddy & rice procurement during ensuing KMS.
  • Cabinet decided that paddy (Kharif crop) will be procured b/w November, 2018 & April, 2019. Paddy (Rabi crop) will be procured from May to June, 2019.
  • Farmers would be paid MSP fixed by Central govt. at ₹1,750 per quintal for common variety of paddy & ₹ 1,770 for Grade-A variety. Money would be directly paid into bank accounts of farmers w/I 3 days of the procurement.

Procurement

  • Procured rice will partly be pumped into Public Distribution System in State, FCI will evacuate remaining to other States as per MoU w/Centre.
  • Paddy procurement process in all 308 procuring blocks will be conducted thru paddy procurement automation system (P-PAS). All documents in connection w/paddy procurement shall be generated from computer thru P-PAS software to make process hassle-free & transparent.
  • State govt. should issue farmer identification cards to all farmers in order to bring more small & marginal farmers & share-croppers into procurement fold.

Endangered ‘Pondicherry shark’

‘Pondicherry shark’, an endangered species protected under provisions of Wildlife (Protection) Act, in East Godavari River Estuarine Ecosystem region.

Key facts:

  • Species is considerest critically endangered & is not seen since 1979.
  • It was found in Indo-pacific region. It is described as smaller species w/rather long snout & large first dorsal fin.
  • Pondicherry sharks body is gray above & white below. They have black tipped pectoral, second dorsal & caudal fins.
  • Scientifically known as Carcharhinus hemiodon
  • It belongs to Carcharhinidae family with a growth of 3.3 feet.
  • Known as ‘Pala Sora’ in local parlance.
  • Pondicherry Shark is on verge of extinction even according to conventional fishermen.
  • International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) has listed Pondicherry shark as Critically Endangered.
  • Shark is among 25 “most wanted lost” species that are focus of Global Wildlife Conservation’s “Search for Lost Species” initiative.

Solar Bubble Dryer

  • Solar Bubble Dryer (SBD) is low-cost, portable & innovative sun-drying technology developed by International Rice Research Institute, Hohenheim University & GrainPro.
  • Proper & timely drying of rice grains ensures good quality produce, which can command a competitive market price.
  • Traditional sun-drying method is beset w/problems like uneven drying or overheating, which causes grain breakage during milling, spillage & contamination (e. g. animals, vehicles etc. ).
  • With climate change, weather has become unpredictable, thus, making grain drying more difficult for farmers.
  • W/SBD, drying process is faster, more regulated & cost-efficient as it does not require fuel or power grid to operate.
  • SBD comes w/photovoltaic system that consists of solar panels, which generates electricity needed for drying process.
  • Enclosed feature of system protects grains from spillage & foreign contaminants.
  • SBD is environment-friendly & helps in mitigation efforts since it harnesses sun’s natural energy & does not require fuel or carbon-emitting power sources.

Point Calimere

After Cyclone Gaja struck, wildlife sanctuary looks like deserted war zone, hundreds of birds have died, trees are uprooted or their branches broken or defoliated.

Point Calimere sanctuary, covering 1728.81 ha is home to 564 flowering plants, 198 medicinal plants, 14 types of mammals, 18 reptiles & 9 amphibians.

About Pt Calimere

  • It is a protected area in Tamil Nadu.
  • Flagship species of sanctuary is near threatened blackbuck antelope, one of 4 antelope species in India (Chinkara, Chausingha & Nilgai being other 3) & most numerous large animal in sanctuary.
  • This site has recorded 2nd largest congregation of migratory water birds in India, w/peak population in excess of 100,000, representing 103 species.
  • Great flamingo, Painted Stork, Little Stint, Seagull & Brown-headed gull are normally found in sanctuary.

- Published/Last Modified on: May 27, 2019

Agriculture/Agro Industries

Monthy-updated, fully-solved, large current affairs-2019 question bank(more than 2000 problems): Quickly cover most-important current-affairs questions with pointwise explanations especially designed for IAS, NTA-NET, Bank-PO and other competetive exams.